International Resources

Below is a collection of articles, government documents, reports, websites, and more from around the world. They are from government agencies, NGOs, and other research agencies and include resources in languages other than English. The National Children's Advocacy Center cannot verify the veracity of evidence upon which the listed resources are based. Listing of documents here should not be interpreted as validation or recommendation. The resources are listed first by general international, then by continent, followed by country.





International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children (2018). Child Sexual Abuse Material: Model Legislation & Global Review Ninth ed.. Author.

International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children. (2018). Studies in Child Protection: Sexual Extortion and Nonconsensual Pornography. Author.

International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children. (2018). Studies in Child Protection: Technology-Facilitated Child Sex Trafficking. Author.

NetClean (2016). The NetClean Report 2016.   Göteborg, Sweden. Author.

ISPCAN Medical Curriculum

Meinck, F., Steinert, J. I.,Sethi, D., Gilbert, R., Bellis, M. A., Mikton, C., Alink, L., & Baban, A. (2016). Measuring and monitoring national prevalence of child maltreatment: A practical handbook. World Health Organization

Thibaut, F., Bradford, J. M., Briken, P., De La Barra, F., Häßler, F., & Cosyns, P. (2016). The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the treatment of adolescent sexual offenders with paraphilic disorders. The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 17(1), 2-38.

Interagency Working Group in Luxembourg (2016). Terminology Guidelines for the Protection of Children from Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse.

Hardcastle, K. A., Bellis, M. A., Hughes, K., & Sethi, D. (2015). Implementing child maltreatment prevention programmes: What the experts say. Copenhagen Ø, Denmark: World Health Organization.

International Centre for Missing and Exploited Children (2014). The Digital Economy: Potential, Perils, and Promises. A Report of the Digital Economy Task Force.

World Health Organization (2010). International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Available in multiple languages.

Aho, Nikolas ; Gren-Landell, Malin ; Svedin, Carl Goren. (2014). The Prevalence of Potentially Victimizing Events, Poly-Victimization, and Its Association to Sociodemographic Factors. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 31(4), 620-651.

Barth, J., Bermetz, E., Helm, E., Trelle, S., & Tonia, T. (2012). The current prevalence of child sexual abuse world-wide: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Public Health, November.

Billah, M. (2012). Socio demographic configuration of the sex labour trade in Banladesh: Income expenditure portfolio of the sex workers. OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, 4(9), 51-62.

Binford, W. (2015). The Digital Child. Salem, OR: Willamette University. 16 slides

Braun, J., Newlin, C., & Huizar, T. (2012). Children's Advocacy Center Philosophy and Model. Presentation at the XIXth ISPCAN International Congress on Child Abuse and Neglect, Istanbul, Turkey.

Brackenridge, C., Kay, T., & Rhind, D. (2012). Sport, Children's Rights, and Violence Prevention: A Sourcebook on Global Issues and Local Programmes. Brunel University.

Broadhurst, R., & Jayawardene, K. (2007). Online child sex solicitation: Exploring the feasibility of a research "sting". International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 1(2), 228-248.

Brobst, J. A. (2004). Parental Discipline Defense in Neew Zealand: The Potential Impact of Reform in Civil Proceedings. North Carolina Central Law Journal, 27, 178.

Brockington, I., Chandra, P., Dubowitz, H., Jones, D., Moussa, S., Nakku, J., & Ferre, I. Q. (2011). WPA guidance on the protection and promotion of mental health in children of persons with severe mental disorders. World Psychiatry, 10(2), 93-102.

Bruce, M. (2014). The Voice of the Child in Child Protection: Whose Voice? Social Sciences, 3(3),514-526.

Carr, J., & the International Centre for Missing and Exploited Children (2017). Commonwealth Internet Governance Forum: A Joint Report on Online Child Protection Combatting Child Sexual Abuse Material on the Internet.

Chang, K. S., Lee, K., Park, T., Sy, E., & Quach, T. (2015). Using a Clinic-based Screening Tool for Primary Care Providers to Identify Commercially Sexually Exploited Children.Journal of Applied Research on Children: Informing Policy for Children at Risk, 6(1), 6.

ChildFund Alliance, Save the Children, SOS Children’s Villages International, World Vision International, and Development Initiatives, 2017, Counting Pennies: A review of official development assistance to end violence against children.

Conner, B. M. (2016, forthcoming). In Loco Aequitatis: The Dangers of "Safe Harbor" Laws for Youth in the Sex Trades.Stanford Journal of Civil Rights and Civil Liberties.

Dessy, S., Orset, C., & Yémélé Kana, L. (2012). The Global Fight against Child Trafficking: How Can It Be Won?. CIRPÉE - Centre interuniversitaire sur le risque, les politiques économiques et l'emploi, Cahiers de recherché/Working Paper 12-13 (March 2012), 35 pp.

Dessy, S. E., Mbiekop, F., & Pallage, S. (2005). The economics of child trafficking (part II). Cahier de recherche/Working Paper, 5, 09.

Diallo, M. (2015). Building an economic case for a child-friendly justice” Special Workshop WORKSHOP REPORT. Eurochild.

Douglas, E. M., & Straus, M. A. (2006). Assault and injury of dating partners by university students in 19 countries and its relation to corporal punishment experienced as a child. European journal of criminology, 3(3), 293-318.

Fredette, K. (2009). International Legislative Efforts to Combat Child Sex Tourism: Evaluating the Council of Europe Convention on Commercial Child Sexual Exploitation, 32 B.C. Int'l & Comp. L. Rev. 1

Fry, Deborah, Fang, Xiangming, Elliott, Stuart, Casey, Tabitha ,Zheng, Xiaodong, Li, Jiaoyuan, Florian, Lani, & McCluskey, Gillean. (2018). The relationships between violence in childhood and educational outcomes: A global systematic review and meta-analysis. Child Abuse & Neglect, 75, 6-28.

Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children (2013). Review of research on the effects of corporal punishment: Working paper. 21 pp.

Gochez-Kerr, T. H., & Scheuble, L. K. (2010). Sexploitation of Children: Exploratory analysis of data availability and reliability. The Penn State McNair Journal, 153-196.

Guedes, A., Bott, S., Garcia-Moreno, C., & Colombini, M. (2016). Bridging the gaps: A global review of intersections of violence against women and violence against children. Global health action, 9.

Hardcastle, K. A., Bellis, M. A., Hughes, K., & Sethi, D. (2015). Implementing child maltreatment prevention programmes: What the experts say. Copenhagen Ø, Denmark: World Health Organization.

International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children (2013). Child Protection Model Law: Best Practices-Protection of Children from Neglect, Abuse, Maltreatment, and Exploitation. The Protection Project at The Johns Hopkins University Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS). 250 p.

International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children (ICMEC) (2017). Online Grooming of Children for Sexual Purposes: Model Legislation & Global Review First ed.   The Koons Family Institute on International Law and Policy. 

International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children (ICMEC) (2017). Framing Implementation: A Supplement to Child Pornography: Model Legislation & Global Review. The Koons Family Institute on International Law and Policy.

International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children (ICMEC) (2016). Child Pornography: Model Legislation & Global Review 8th ed. The Koons Family Institute on International Law and Policy.

Kallstrom, Asa ; Hellfeldt, Karin ; Howell, Kathryn H. ; Miller-Graff, Laura E. ; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A. (2017). Young Adults Victimized as Children or Adolescents: Relationships Between Perpetrator Patterns, Poly-Victimization, and Mental Health Problems. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.

Know Violence in Childhood. (2017). Ending Violence in Childhood. Global Report 2017. Know Violence in Childhood. New Delhi, India.

Lansford, J. E., Godwin, J., Tirado, L. M. U., Zelli, A., Al-Hassan, S. M., Bacchini, D., ... & Di Giunta, L. (2015). Individual, family, and culture level contributions to child physical abuse and neglect: A longitudinal study in nine countries. Development and psychopathology, 27(4pt2), 1417-1428.

Longman-Mills, S., Williams, Y. M. G., Rodriguez, M. O. M., Baquero, M. R. G., Rojas, J. D. G., Amaya, C. J. D., ... & Tinoco, L. I. S. (2015). The association between adult drug abuse and childhood maltreatment in students attending seven universities in five countries in Latin America and one country in the Caribbean. Texto & Contexto-Enfermagem, 24(SPE), 26-32

Mikton, C., & Butchart, A. (2009). Child maltreatment prevention: A systematic review of reviews. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 87(5), 353-361.

Murphy, Siobhan ; Elklit, Ask ; Shevlin, Mark. (2017). Child Maltreatment Typologies and Intimate Partner Violence Findings From a Danish National Study of Young Adults. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.

Norman RE, Byambaa M, De R, Butchart A, Scott J, et al. (2012) The Long-Term Health Consequences of Child Physical Abuse, Emotional Abuse, and Neglect: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS Med 9(11): e1001349. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001349

O'Connor, K., Drouin, M., Yergens, N., & Newsham, G. (2017). Sexting Legislation in the United States and Abroad: A Call for Uniformity.  International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 11(2), 218-245.

Olson, E., & Tomek, J. (2017). Cryptocurrency and the BlockChain: Technical Overview and Potential Impact on Commercial Child Sexual Exploitation.  Financial Coalition Against Child Pornography (FCACP) and the International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children (ICMEC).

Ólöf Ásta Farestveit (2012). Presentation: Comprehensive Services of the Barnahus.

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (1989). Convention on the Rights of the Child.

Pereda, N., Guilera, G., Forns, M., & Gómez-Benito, J. (2009). The international epidemiology of child sexual abuse: A continuation of Finkelhor (1994). Child abuse & neglect, 33(6), 331-342.

Poole, M. K., Seal, D. W., & Taylor, C. A. (2014). A systematic review of universal campaigns targeting child physical abuse prevention. Health education research, 29(3), 388-432.

Promoting Research to Prevent Child Maltreatment: Summary Report. (2012). Workshop on International Epidemiological Studies. XIXth ISPCAN International Congress on Child Abuse and Neglect.

RahmanMiah, M. W., Yearwood, J., & Kulkarni, S. (2011, December). Detection of child exploiting chats from a mixed chat dataset as text classification task. In Proceedings of the Australian Language Technology Association Workshop (pp. 157-165).

Refugee Portal. Bridging Refugee Youth & Children's Services (BRYCS) A resource to help ensure that refugees have easy access to multilingual resources on the topics of family life and parenting, early childhood, the U.S. school system (K-12), children's books, and health/mental health.

Roby, J. L. (2005). Women and children in the global sex trade. International Social Work, 48(2), 136-147.

Smolin, D. M. (2004). Intercountry adoption as child trafficking. Valparaiso University Law Review, 39, 281.

Straus, M. A.  (2013). Concordance between parents in use of corporal punishment and its relation to belief in the death penalty by university students in 15 nations. Paper presented at the Association for Psychological Science, Invited symposium on Corporal Punishment, Aggression, and Culture, Washington, DC. Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire Family Research Laboratory.

Teh, M. K. (2012). Corporal punishment-archaic or reasonable discipline method?. International journal of law and education, 17(1), 73-86.

Todres, J. (2010). Taking prevention seriously: Developing a comprehensive response to child trafficking and sexual exploitation. Vanderbilt Journal Transnational Law, 43(1), 1-55.

UK Council for Child Internet Safety (2017). Sexting in Schools and Colleges: Responding to incidents and safeguarding young people. Author.

U. S. State Department (2012). Trafficking in Persons Report 2012. Introductory materials in six languages.

World Health Organization (2012). Children with disabilities more likely to experience violence..

The Link. Official Newsletter of the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN). Available in seven languages.

U. S. Department of State. (2011). Trafficking in Persons Report 2011.

UNICEF. Information by country and programme. In five languages. (2013). Shining a spotlight on sexual violence against children in conflict. 25 p.

Yokahama. World Conference against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children. (2001). 44p. EPCAT -End child prostitution, child pornography, and the trafficking of children for sexual purposes

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2006). Compendium of United Nations Standards and Norms in Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice. Vienna: United Nations. 249 p.

Mikton, C., & Butchart, A. (2009). Child Maltreatment: A systematic review of reviews. World Health Organization.

Pinheiro, Paulo SÈrgio. World Report on Violence against Children. United Nations. October 2006. 355p. (ISBN-10 92-95057-51-1) In German language.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2009).Handbook for Professionals and Policymakers on justice in matters involving child victims and witnesses of crime. Vienna: United Nations. 152 p.

Carr, J. Theme Paper on Child Pornography for the 2nd World Congress on Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children. Children & Technology Unit NCH, London, England. 47 p.

UNICEF. (2009). Progress for Children: A Report Card on Child Protection. 52 p.

Douglas, E. M. & Srauss, M. A. (2007). Discipline by parents and child psychopathology. The International Handbook of Psychopathic Disorders and the Law. Eds. Alan R. Felthous and Henning Sab. (pp. 303-17). New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Gallagher, B., Frazer, C., Christmann, K., Hodgson, B. (2006). International and internet child sexual abuse and exploitation. Project Report. University of Huddersfield, UK. 187 p.

Waters, H. (2004). The economic dimensions of interpersonal violence. World Health Organization.

Thompstone, G. (2004). The development of quality care standards in welfare services for child victims of commercial sexual exploitation.

Child Pornography: Model Legislation and Global Review. 6th ed.

Guidelines for Policymakers on Child Online Protection.

Comprehensive Legal Approaches to Combat Child Pornography: An International and Regional Perspective.

Carr, J. Online Child Protection: Combatting child Pornography on the Internet.

Krone, T. (2005). International Police Operations Against Online Child Pornography. Trends and Issues in crime and and criminal justice. No. 296.

Jaishankar, K. (2009). Sexting: A new form of victimless crime? International Journal of Cybercriminology, 3(1), 21-25.

Center for the Human Rights of Children and International Organzation for Adolescents. (2011). Building Child Welfare Response to Child Trafficking.

Barnardo's (2011). Puppet on a string: The urgent need to cut children free from sexual exploitation.

World Health Organization (2004). The economic dimensions of Interpersonal violence.

The Global Legal Information Network (GLIN) is a public database of official texts of laws, regulations, judicial decisions, and other complementary legal sources contributed by governmental agencies and international organizations. These GLIN members contribute the full texts of their published documents to the database in their original languages.

Ham, J. (2011). Moving beyond supply and demand catchphrases: Assessing the uses and limitations of dmeand-based approaches in anti-trafficking. Global Alliance Against Traffick in Women. 98p.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking (GIFT). (2009). An anti-human trafficking manual for criminal justice practitioners. Vienna, Austria, 28 pages.

Stoltenborgh, M., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2013). The neglect of child neglect: a meta-analytic review of the prevalence of neglect. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 48(3), 345-3.

UNODC, Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2014 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.14.V.10)

Wessells, M. G. (2015). Bottom-up approaches to strengthening child protection systems: placing children, families, and communities at the center.Child abuse & neglect, 43, 8-21.

World Health Organization, the United Nations Development Programme, and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2014). Global status report on violence prevention 2014. Geneva, Switzerland. Social Sciences, 3(3), 326-340.

World Health Organization (2016). Child Maltreatment Infographic.

World Health Organization (2017). Global plan of action to strengthen the role of the health system within a national multisectoral response to address interpersonal violence, in particular against women and girls, and against children.

Yanchuk, V., Daniunaite, I., Grigutyte, N., Makhanko, A., & Tiapula, S. (2016). Child-Friendly Practices: Is it Possilbe? and How? Vilnius: Supratingumas.


Andersson, N. et al. (2012). Prevalence and risk factors for forced or coerced sex among school-going youth: National cross-sectional studies in 10 southern African countries in 2003-3007.BMJ Open, 2(2), 1-9.

Better Care Network. (2017). Violence Against Children and Care in Africa: A Discussion Paper. New York:  Better Care Network.

Brown, D. W., Riley, L., Butchart, A., Meddings, D. R., Kann, L. & Harveya, A. P. (2009). Exposure to physical and sexual violence and adverse health behaviours in African children: results from the Global School-based Student Health Survey. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 87, 447–55.

Essabar, L., Khalqallah, A., & Dakhama, B. S. B. (2015). Child sexual abuse: Report of 311 cases with review of literature. The Pan African Medical Journal, 20, 47-55.

Ige, O. K., & Fawole, O. I. (2012). Evaluating the medical care of child sexual abuse victims in a general hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria. Ghana Medical Journal, 46(1), 22-26.

Kalisya, L. M. et al. (2011). Sexual Violence toward Children and Youth in War-Torn Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. PLoS One,6 (1), 1-5.

Lalor, K. (2004). Child sexual abuse in Tanzania and Kenya. Dublin Institute of Technology.

Meinck, F., Cluver, L. D., Boyes, M. E., & Mhlongo, E. L. (2015). Risk and Protective Factors for Physical and Sexual Abuse of Children and Adolescents in Africa: A Review and Implications for Practice. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 16(1), 81-107. 

Sloth-Nielsen, J. (2014). Regional Frameworks for Safeguarding Children: The Role of the African Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Child.Social Sciences, 3(4),948-961.

Yahaya, I., Soares, J., Ponce De Leon, A., & Macassa, G. (2012). A comparative study of the socioeconomic factors associated with childhood sexual abuse in sub-Saharan Africa. Pan African Medical Journal, 11, 51.

Yahaya, I., Uthman, O. A., Soares, J., & Macassa, G. (2013). Social disorganization and history of child sexual abuse against girls in sub-Saharan Africa: A multilevel analysis. BMC International Health and Human Rights,13(1), 33-40.

Yahaya, I., De Leon, A. P., Uthman, O. A., Soares, J., & Macassa, G. (2014). Individual and community-level socioeconomic position and its association with adolescents experience of childhood sexual abuse: a multilevel analysis of six countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Injury and ViolenceResearch, 6(1) , 21-30.


Frederick, J. (2009), ‘Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Boys in South Asia - A Review of Research Findings, Legislation, Policy and Programme Responses’ Innocenti Working Paper No. 2010-02. Florence, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.

D G Harendra da Silva (2007). Children needing protection: Experience from South Asia. Archives of Disease in Childhood.

International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children (2016). Missing Children in Southeast Asia: Model Framework & Regional Review.

Jejeebhoy, S. J., & Bott, S. (2003). Non-consensual sexual experiences of young people: A review of the evidence from developing countries. New Delhi, India: Population Council.

Australia & New Zealand

Abajobir, A. A., Kisely, S., Maravilla, J. C., Williams, G., & Najman, J. M. (2017). Gender differences in the association between childhood sexual abuse and risky sexual behaviours: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Child abuse & neglect, 63, 249-260.

Atkin, B. (2011). Physical Punishment by Parents: The New Zealand Reform (2011). “Physical Punishment by Parents: The New Zealand Reform” in A Büchler and M Müller-Chen (eds) Private Law national – global – comparative Festschrift für Ingeborg Schwenzer zum 60. Geburtstag (Stämpfli and Intersentia, Bern, 2011); Victoria University of Wellington Legal Research Paper No. 21/2015

Artus, J., & Niemi, M. (2016). Review of evidence for primary prevention of child abuse and neglect (including child sexual abuse). Wellington, Australia:  Sapere Research Group.

Beddoe, L., & de Haan, I. (2018). Addressing concerns about child maltreatment in schools: A brief research report on social work involvement in reporting processes. Aotearoa New Zealand Social Work, 30(1), 58-64

Bolitho, J., & Freeman, K. (2016). The Use and Effectiveness of Restorative Justice in Criminal Justice Systems Following Child Sexual Abuse or Comparable Harms. Sydney: Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse.

Bhardwaj, G., Jacobs, M. B., Martin, F. J., Moran, K. T., Prelog, K., Donaldson, C., ... & Coroneo, M. T. (2017). Photographic assessment of retinal hemorrhages in infant head injury: The Childhood Hemorrhagic Retinopathy Study. Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, 21(1), 28-33.

Blakemore, T., Herbert, J. L., Arney, F., & Parkinson, S. (2017). The impacts of institutional child sexual abuse: A rapid review of the evidence. Child Abuse & Neglect. Online ahead of print.

Bromfield, L. M., Gillingham, P., & Higgins, D. J. (2007). Cumulative harm and chronic child maltreatment. Developing practice: the child youth and family work journal, 19, 34-42.

Budiselik, W., Crawford, F., & Chung, D. (2014).The Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse: Dreaming of Child Safe Organisations?Social Sciences, 3(3), 565-583.

Cashmore, J., & Shackel, R. (2013). The long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Australia Institute of Family Studies. 29 p.

Cashmore, J. (2011). The link between child maltreatment and adolescent offending: Systems neglect of adolescents. Family Matters, 89, 31-41.

Conroy, E., Degenhardt, L., Mattick, R. P., & Nelson, E. C. (2009). Child maltreatment as a risk factor for opioid dependence: Comparison of family characteristics and type and severity of child maltreatment with a matched control group.Child Abuse & Neglect, 33(6), 343-352.

Christensen, L. S. (2016). Pathway to justice: Examining the attrition of child sexual abuse cases (No. PhD.). Deakin University

Crofts, P. (2017). Criminalising Institutional Failures to Prevent, Identify or React to Child Sexual Abuse. University of Technology Sydney, Australia.

Danese, A., Pariante, C. M., Caspi, A., Taylor, A., & Poulton, R. (2007). Childhood maltreatment predicts adult inflammation in a life-course study. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(4), 1319-1324.

Danese, A., Moffitt, T. E., Pariante, C. M., Ambler, A., Poulton, R., & Caspi, A. (2008). Elevated inflammation levels in depressed adults with a history of childhood maltreatment. Archives of general psychiatry, 65(4), 409-415

Davies, E., Rowe, E., & Hassal, I. (2009). Approaches to defining child neglect and intervening to prevent it: A literature review. The Ministry of Social Development commissioned this report done by the Auckland University of Technology. It focuses particularly on children under five years old. 92 pages.

Danese, A., Moffitt, T. E., Harrington, H., Milne, B. J., Polanczyk, G., Pariante, C. M., ... & Caspi, A. (2009). Adverse childhood experiences and adult risk factors for age-related disease: Depression, inflammation, and clustering of metabolic risk markers. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine, 163(12), 1135-1143.

Devilly, G. J., Wright, R., & Varker, T. (2009). Vicarious trauma, secondary traumatic stress or simply burnout? Effect of trauma therapy on mental health professionals. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 43(4), 373-385.

Dorahy, M. J., Middleton, W., Seager, L., McGurrin, P., Williams, M., & Chambers, R. (2015). Dissociation, shame, complex PTSD, child maltreatment and intimate relationship self-concept in dissociative disorder, chronic PTSD and mixed psychiatric groups.Journal of Affective Disorders, 172, 195-203.

Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Woodward, L. J. (2000). The stability of child abuse reports: A longitudinal study of the reporting behaviour of young adults. Psychological Medicine, 30(03), 529-544.

Fernandez, E. (2014). Child Protection and Vulnerable Families: Trends and Issues in the Australian Context. Social Sciences, 3(4), 785-808.

Frederico, M., Jackson, A.L., Black, C.M., Cox, A., & Joffe, B. (2018). Small Talk: Identifying communication problems in maltreated children.  Child Abuse & Neglect, 75, 139-148.

Gelb, K. (2016). A Statistical Analysis of Sentencing for Child Sexual Abuse in Institutional Contexts. Sydney, N.S.W.: Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse.

Grant, J. Indermaur, D., Thonton, J., Stevens, G. Chamarette, C., & Halse, A. (2009). Intrafamilial adolescent sex offenders: Psychological profiles and treatment. Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, 375. 6p.

Herbert, J., & Bromfield, L. (2017). Multiagency Investigation & Support Team (MIST) Pilot: Evaluation Report. Adelaide, South Australia: Australian Centre for Child Protection  Division of Education, Arts, and Social Sciences  University of South Australia.

Herbert, J., & Bromfield, L. (2017). National Comparison of Cross-Agency Practice in Investigating and Responding to Severe Child Abuse – A Report for the NSW Ombudsman’s Office (Report 1 of 2).  South Australia: Australian Centre for Child Protection Division of Education, Arts, and Social Sciences University of South Australia.

Herbert, J. & Bromfield, L. (2017). Components of effective cross-agency responses to abuse - A report for the NSW Ombudsman's Office. Adelaide: Australian Centre for Child Protection, University of South Australia.

Howard, K. S., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2009). The role of home-visiting programs in preventing child abuse and neglect. The Future of Children, 19(2), 119-146.

Hunter, Cathryn. Responding to children and young people's disclosures of abuse. (September 2011). This paper outlines what we know through research and practice about how, why, what and when children and young people are likely to disclose. It offers suggestions for parents, family members, friends, professionals or others to help respond to children and young people at the time of disclosure and afterwards. Australian Institute of Family Studies.

Jülich, S. J., & Oak, E. B. (2016). Does grooming facilitate the development of Stockholm syndrome? The social work practice implications. Aotearoa New Zealand Social Work, 28(3), 47-56.

Kaufman, K., & Erooga, M. (2016). Risk profiles for institutional child sexual abuse. Sydney: The Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse.

Kelly, P., John, S., Vincent, A. L., & Reed, P. (2015). Abusive head trauma and accidental head injury: A 20-year comparative study of referrals to a hospital child protection team. Archives of disease in childhood, 100(12), 1123-1300

Krone, T. (2004). A typology of online child pornography offending. Trends and Issues in crime and Criminal Justice. No. 279. Australian Institute of Criminology.

MacDonald, K., Thomas, M. L., Sciolla, A. F., Schneider, B., Pappas, K., Bleijenberg, G., ... & Dannlowski, U. (2016). Minimization of childhood maltreatment is common and consequential: Results from a large, multinational sample using the childhood trauma questionnaire. PloS one, 11(1), e0146058.

Mathews, B. (2017). Optimising implementation of reforms to better prevent and respond to child sexual abuse in institutions: Insights from public health, regulatory theory, and Australia’s Royal Commission. Child Abuse & Neglect, Online ahead of print.

Mathews, B., Yang, C., Lehman, E. B., Mincemoyer, C., Verdiglione, N., & Levi, B. H. (2017). Educating early childhood care and education providers to improve knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment: A randomized controlled trial. PLOS ONE, 12(5), e0177777

O’Leary, P., Koh, E., & Dare, A. (2017). Grooming and child sexual abuse in institutional contexts. Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, Sydney.

Parkinson, P. (2013). Suffer the Teenage Children: Child Sexual Abuse in Church Communities. Paper for the Center for the Study of Law and Religion, Emory University. NO. 13/09. 33 pp

Quadara, A., Stathopoulos, M., & Carson, R. (2016). Family relationships and the disclosure of institutional child sexual abuse.

Quadara, A. (2017). Framework for historical influences on institutional child sexual abuse: 1950–2014. Sydney: Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse.

Raman, S., & Hotton, P. R. (2017). Audit of child maltreatment medical assessments in a culturally diverse, metropolitan setting. BMJ Paediatrics Open, 1(1), e000125.

Smallbone, S., & Wortley, R. (2000). Child sexual abuse in Queensland: Offender characteristics and modus operandi. Australian Key Centre for Ethics, Law, Justice & Governance. School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Griffith Univeristy.

Lamont, Alister. (2011). Who Abuses Children? The purpose of the Resource Sheet from the National Child Protection Clearinghouse in Australia is to provide an overview of the evidence available regarding those who abuse children. Identifying common trends from research can help to dispel certain myths and/or beliefs regarding perpetrators of child abuse and neglect.

Lowe, P., Lee, E., & Macvarish, J. (2015). Biologising parenting: neuroscience discourse, English social and public health policy and understandings of the child. Sociology of health & illness, 37(2), 198-211.

Mandatory reporting of child abuse. (2012).Compiled by Deborah Scott. Published by the Australian Institute of Family Studies.

Mathews, B. (2014). Mandatory Reporting Laws and Identification of Child Abuse and Neglect: Consideration of Differential Maltreatment Types, and a Cross-Jurisdictional Analysis of Child Sexual Abuse Reports. Social Sciences, 3(3), 460-482.

Mathews, B. (2015). Child sexual abuse and access to justice for civil claims: time to reform the Limitation of Actions Act 1974 (Qld). Australian Centre for Health Law Research.

McDonald, M., & Rosier, K. (2011). Interagency Collaboration: Part A- What is it, what does it look like, when is it needed and what suppports it? Australian Family Relationships Clearinghouse Briefing No. 21-A.

McDonald, M., & Rosier, K. (2011). Interagency Collaboration: Part B-Does collaboration beneift children and Families? Exploring the evidence. Australian Family Relationships Clearinghouse Briefing No. 21-B.

McKenzie, K., & Scott, D. A. (2011). Using routinely collected hospital data for child maltreatment surveillance: issues, methods and patterns.BMC public health, 11(1), 7.

McKenzie, K., & Scott, D. A. (2012). Quantity of documentation of maltreatment risk factors in injury-related paediatric hospitalisations. BMC public health,12(1), 563.

McKenzie, K., Scott, D. A., Waller, G. S., & Campbell, M. (2011). Reliability of routinely collected hospital data for child maltreatment surveillance. BMC public health, 11(1), 8.

Meade, F. (1998). Inside out: An organisational map for primary violence. Mount Barker, South Australia: Adelaide Hills Community Health Service.

Minto, K., Hornsey, M. J., Gillespie, N., Healy, K., & Jetten, J. (2016). A Social Identity Approach to Understanding Responses to Child Sexual Abuse Allegations. PloS one, 11(4), e0153205.

Mills, R., Scott, J., Alati, R., O’Callaghan, M., Najman, J. M., & Strathearn, L. (2013). Child maltreatment and adolescent mental health problems in a large birth cohort.Child abuse & neglect, 37(5), 292-302.

Moore, T., McArthur, M., Heerde, J., Roche, S. & O’Leary, P. (2016).Our safety counts: Children and young people’s perceptions of safety and institutional responses to their safety concerns. Melbourne: Institute of Child Protection Studies, Australian Catholic University.

Peters, M. A. (2017). Child sexual abuse: The final report of the Australian Royal Commission into institutional responses to child sexual abuse. Author.

Saphira, M., & Oliver, P. (2002). A review of literature on child prostitution.Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, 141-163.

Saunders, V., & McArthur, M. (2017). Help-seeking needs and gaps for preventing child sexual abuse. Sydney, Australia. Institute of Child Protection Studies, Australian Catholic University. Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse.

Taylor, P., Moore, P., Pezzullo, L., Tucci, J., Goddard, C. and De Bortoli, L. (2008). The Cost of Child Abuse in Australia, Australian Childhood Foundation and Child Abuse Prevention Research Australia: Melbourne.

Gripps, K. (2006). Understanding Indigenous family violence in the context of human rights agenda. Human Rights Defender.

Grant J., Indermaur, D., Thornton, J., Stevens, G., Chamarette, C., & Halse, A. (2009). Intrafamilial adolescent sex offenders: psychological profile and treatment. Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice. No. 375.

Quadara, A., & Hunter, C. (2016). Principles of Trauma-informed approaches to child sexual abuse: A discussion paper. Sydney, Australia: Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse.

Russ, E., Lonne, B., & Darlington, Y. (2009). Using resilience to reconceptualise child protection workforce capacity. Australian Social Work, 62(3), 324-338.

Scott, K. M., Smith, D. R., & Ellis, P. M. (2010). Prospectively ascertained child maltreatment and its association with DSM-IV mental disorders in young adults. Archives of general psychiatry, 67(7), 712-719.

Shackel, R. (2012). The dynamics of disclosure of child sexual victimization: Implications for investigation and prosecution. Right Now (Online Journal of Human Rights in Australia), July.

Staiger, P. K. (Ed.). (2005). Children who Engage in Problem Sexual Behaviours: Context, Characteristics and Treatment: a Review of the Literature. Australian Childhood Foundation.

Stanley, J., Kovacs, K., Tomison, A., & Kripps, K. (2002). Child Abuse and Family Violence in Aboriginal Communities-Exploring Child Sexual Abuse in Western Australia. National Child Protection Clearinghouse and Australian Institute of Family Studies. 88p.

Strathearn, L., Mamun, A. A., Najman, J. M., & O'Callaghan, M. J. (2009). Does breastfeeding protect against substantiated child abuse and neglect? A 15-year cohort study. Pediatrics, 123(2), 483-493.

Taylor, E. (2018). Pornography as a Public Health Issue: Promoting Violence and Exploitation of Children, Youth, and Adults. Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence, 3(2), 8.

Thompson, A. J. (2017). The lived experience of non-offending mothers in cases of intrafamilial child sexual abuse: Towards a preliminary model of loss, trauma and recovery. Joondalup, Western Australia: Edith Cowan University.

Tomison, A. M. (2000). Exploring family violence: Links between child maltreatment and domestic violence. Melbourne, Australia: Australian Institute of Family Studies.

Valentine, K., Katz, I., Smyth, C., Bent, C., Rinaldis, S., Wade, C., & Albers, B. (2016). Key Elements of Child Safe Organisations – Research Study Final Report. Sydney, NSW: Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse

Van Haeringen, A. R., Dadds, M., & Armstrong, K. L. (1998). The child abuse lottery—will the doctor suspect and report? Physician attitudes towards and reporting of suspected child abuse and neglect.Child Abuse & Neglect, 22(3), 159-169.

Wall, L., Higgins, D. J., & Hunter, C. (2016). Trauma-informed care in child/family welfare services. Australian Institute of Family Studies.

Walsh, K., Zwi, K., Woolfenden, S., & Shlonsky, A. (2016). Assessing the effectiveness of school-based sexual abuse prevention programs. Family Matters, (97), 5.

Walsh, K. M., Brandon, L., & Kruck, L. A. J. (2017). Audit of primary school-based sexual abuse prevention policy and curriculum: Volumes 1 to 5: Report prepared for the Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse.

Weindl, Dina, Knefel, Matthias, Gluck, Tobias M. ,Tran, Ulrich S., & Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte. (2018). Motivational capacities after prolonged interpersonal childhood trauma in institutional settings in a sample of Austrian adult survivors. Child Abuse & Neglect, 76, 194-203.

White, C., Shanley, D. C., Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., Lines, K., Walsh, K., & Hawkins, R. (2016). Cluster randomised-control trial for an Australian child protection education program: Study protocol for the Learn to be safe with Emmy and friends™. BMC public health, 16(1), 1.

Wood, J. (1997). Royal Commission into the New South Wales Police Service. Final Report Volume IV: The Paedophile Inquiry. 367 p.

Wood, J. (2008). Report of the Special Commission of Inquiry into Child Protection Services in NSW. Special Commission of Inquiry into Child Protection Services.

Wright, K. (2017). Remaking collective knowledge: An analysis of the complex and multiple effects of inquiries into historical institutional child abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect.


Lueger-Schuster, B., Knefel, M., Glück, T. M., Jagsch, R., Kantor, V., & Weindl, D. (2018). Child abuse and neglect in institutional settings, cumulative lifetime traumatization, and psychopathological long-term correlates in adult survivors: The Vienna Institutional Abuse Study. Child Abuse & Neglect, 76, 488-501.


La protección infantil: el papel de la escuela

La protección infantil: el papel de la familia


Makhanko, A. (2012).International NGO "Ponimanie": Development of Child Protection System in Belarus in 2009-12. Presentation at the XIXth ISPCAN International Congress on Child Abuse and Neglect, Istanbul, Turkey.

Makhanko, A. (2015). In Children’s Eyes. “To see mother suffering is the hardest trauma for a child”. Belarus,

Barnahus in Belarus. (2013). Child Friendly Investigation. True vs. Trauma. Keeping right Balance. International NGO "Ponimanie", Minsk. Belarus.


Vyvey, E., Roose, R., De Wilde, L., & Roets, G. (2014). Dealing with Risk in Child and Family Social Work: From an Anxious to a Reflexive Professional? Social Sciences, 3(4), 758-770.


ISPCAN (2014). PIECES: Policy Investigation in Europe on Child Endangerment and Support. 

Pellai, A., & Caranzano-Maitre, M. (2015). Primary prevention of child sexual abuse: Child focused interventions.Irish Journal of Applied Social Studies, 15(2), 4

Hadjipanayis, A., Crawley, F. P., Stiris, T., Neubauer, D., & Michaud, P. A. (2018). Child trafficking in Europe: What is the paediatrician’s role?. European journal of pediatrics, 1-5.

Kaess, M. (2018). Bullying: peer-to-peer maltreatment with severe consequences for child and adolescent mental health. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 27(8), 945–947.

National Center for Child Abuse Prevention-Republic of Moldova.Inter -sectoral collaboration. Slide presentation

Tijne Berg- le Clercq (2012). Combatting child abuse and neglect in Germany, Hungary, Portugal, Sweden and the Netherlands. Netherlands Jeugdinstituut.

Council of Europe Guidelines on Child-Friendly Justice. Draft Guidelines of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on child-friendly justice (as prepared by Ms. Ankie Vandekerckhove, Scintific Expert of the CJ-S-CH, following the 3rd meeting of the Group on 8-10 December 2009), Strasbourg, 5 January 2010, 19 p.

World Health Organization. Violence and Injury Prevention Programme. (2007). Preventing Child Maltreatment in Europe: A Public Health Approach. 16 p.

Ainsaar, M., & Loof, L. (2010). Online behaviour related to child sexual abuse: Literature report.

Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse - Database of Best Practice. (2011). European Economic and Social Committee (EESC). Descriptions and links to more than 40 examples of prevention efforts against child sexual abuse in Europe are provided. These efforts vary widely in terms of target group, environment and methods used. Translation is available through Google for many of them.


Apostólico, M. R., Hino, P., & Egry, E. Y. (2013). Possibilities for addressing child abuse in systematized nursing consultations. Revista da Escola de Enfermagen da USP, 47(2), 320-327. English and Portuguese versions

Avanci, J., Assis, S., Oliveira, R., & Pires, T.(2012). Childhood depression: Exploring the association between family violence and other psychosocial factors in low-income Brazilian schoolchildren. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 6, 26-35.

Bassini, D. G., et al. (2009). Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: A population based study. BMC Public Health, 9(133).

Bonfim, C. B., Dos Santos, D. N., & Barreto, M. L. (2015). The association of intrafamilial violence against children with symptoms of atopic and non-atopic asthma: A cross-sectional study in Salvador, Brazil. Child abuse & neglect, 50, 244-253.

Childhood Brazil. Special Testimony Project. Slide presentation.

Court of Justice. Depoimento Especial. A experiência da Comarca de Abaetetuba na oitiva de crianças e adolescentes em situação de violência física e sexual. Slide presentation.

Delia, A. T. D., Matsuzaka, C. T., Neto, J. B. B., Mello, M. F., Juruena, M. F., & Mello, A. F. (2018). Childhood sexual abuse and indicators of immune activity: A systematic review. Frontiers in psychiatry, 9, 354.

Habigzang, L. F., Stroeher, F. H., Hatzenberger, R., Cunha, R. C., da Silva Ramos, M., & Koller, S. H. (2009). Cognitive behavioral group therapy for sexually abused girls. Rev Saúde Pública 2009;43(Supl. 1).

Lourenco, C. B., Saintrain, M. V., & Vieira, A. P. (2013). Child, neglect and oral health. BMC pediatrics, 13(1), 188.

Lowenkron, L. (2015). Consent and vulnerability: Some intersections between child sexual abuse and the trafficking in persons for sexual exploitation. Cadernos Pagu, (45), 225-258.

National Children's Advocacy Center (2012). National Children's Advocacy Center's Forensic Interview Structure-Portuguese translation.

Newlin, C. (2016).Lessons learned from 30 years of coordinating the multidisciplinary response to child abuse-Children's Advocacy Centers. Portuguese translation.  Huntsville, AL: National Children's Advocacy Center.

Newlin, C. (2016). Resposta Multidisciplinar ao Abuso e á  Exploração de Croanças e Adolescentes.São Paulo, Brazil. National Children's Advocacy Center.

Parrish, C . , Surkan, P.J . , Martins, S.S . , Gattaz, W.F . , Andrade, L.H . , Viana, M.C . (2012). Childhood adversity and adult onset of Hypertension in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Preventing Chronic Disease, 10, E205.  

Pro Paz por Uma Cultura de Paz (2013). Slide presentation.

Scomparini, L. B., dos Santos, B., Rosenheck, R. A., & Scivoletto, S. (2013). Association of child maltreatment and psychiatric diagnosis in Brazilian children and adolescents. Clinics, 68(8), 1096-1102.

Silva, W. D. S., Ribeiro, F. M., Guimarães, G. K., Santos, M. D. S. D., Almeida, V. P. D. S., & Barroso-Junior, U. D. O. (2018). Factors associated with child sexual abuse confirmation at forensic examinations. Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, 23, 599-606

Triguero Veloz Teixeira, M. C., de Freitas Marino, R. L., & Rodrigues Carreiro, L. R. (2015). Associations between inadequate parenting practices and behavioral problems in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The Scientific World Journal, 2015. 1-6.

Vollú, A. L., Almeida, M. L. P., Maria de Fátima, C. V., Gomes, C. M., Vianna, R. B. D. C., Barja-Fidalgo, F., & Fonseca-Gonçalves, A. (2018). The dentist as a child abuse informer: A case report. Revista Científica do CRO-RJ (Rio de Janeiro Dental Journal), 3(1), 77-81.


Afifi, T. O., McTavish, J., Turner, S., MacMillan, H. L., & Wathen, C. N. (2018). The relationship between child protection contact and mental health outcomes among Canadian adults with a child abuse history. Child abuse & neglect, 79, 22-30.

Affi, T. O., Taillieu, T., Cheung, K., Katz, L. Y., Tonmyr, L., & Sareen, J. (2015). Substantiated reports of child maltreatment from the Canadian incidence study of reported child abuse and neglect 2008: Examining child and household characteristics and child functional impairment. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 60(7), 315-323.

Afifi, T. O., MacMillan, H. L., Taillieu, T., Cheung, K., Turner, S., Tonmyr, L., & Hovdestad, W. (2015). Relationship between child abuse exposure and reported contact with child protection organizations: Results from the Canadian Community Health Survey. Child abuse & neglect. Online ahead of print.

Alaggia, R., Gadalla, T. M., Shlonsky, A., Jenney, A., & Daciuk, J. (2015). Does differential response make a difference: examining domestic violence cases in child protection services.Child & Family Social Work, 20(1), 83-95.doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.05.001

Armiento, J. S. (2015). Suicidal and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Examining the Potential Impact of Direct and Indirect Forms of Childhood Maltreatment (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Western Ontario).

Bennett, S., Plint, A., & Clifford, T. J. (2005). Burnout, psychological morbidity, job satisfaction, and stress: A survey of Canadian hospital based child protection professionals. Archives of disease in childhood, 90(11), 1112-1116.

Bloom, M. L. (2009). Secondary Traumatic Stress: The Hidden Trauma in Child and Youth Counsellors. Waterloo, ON, CA: Wilfrid Laurier University,

Bouchard, C. (1983). L’intervention psychosociale et la violence envers les enfants: Une réflexion critique sur la pratique québécoise. Santé mentale au Québec, 8(2), 140-146.

Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect. 2000.

Canadian Centre For Child Protection (2018). The Prevalence of Sexual Abuse by K-12 School Personnel in Canada, 1997–2017. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse.

Canadian Paediatric Society. Community Paediatrics Committee (1999). Ethical approach to genital examination of children. Canadian Family Physician, 45, 1941.

Chabot, M., Fallon, B., Tonmyr, L., Maclaurin, B., Fluke, J., & Blackstock, C. (2013). Exploring alternate specifications to explain agency-level effects in placement decisions regarding aboriginal children: Further analysis of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect Part B. Child Abuseand Neglect, 37(1), 61-76.

Chartrand, J., & Drolet, M. (2010). L’absence de considération pour la notion de genre dans l’intervention auprès des enfants manifestant des comportements sexuels problématiques et auprès de leurs parents. Reflets: Revue d'intervention sociale et communautaire, 16(1), 101-125.

Cheung, K., Taillieu, T., Turner, S., Fortier, J., Sareen, J., MacMillan, H. L., ... & Afifi, T. O. (2018). Individual-level factors related to better mental health outcomes following child maltreatment among adolescents. Child abuse & neglect, 79, 192-202.

Clément, M. È., Chamberland, C., Tourigny, M., & Mayer, M. (2009). Taxinomie des besoins des enfants dont les mauvais traitements ou les troubles de comportement ont été jugés fondés par la direction de la protection de la jeunesse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33(10), 750-765.

Craig, W. M. (1998). The relationship among bullying, victimization, depression, anxiety, and aggression in elementary school children. Personality and individual differences, 24(1), 123-130.

Cyr, K., Clément, M. È., & Chamberland, C. (2014). La victimisation, une norme dans la vie des jeunes au Québec?.Criminologie, 47(1), 17-40.

Cyr, K., Chamberland, C., Clément, M. È., Lessard, G., Wemmers, J. A., Collin-Vézina, D., ... & Damant, D. (2013). Polyvictimization and victimization of children and youth: Results from a populational survey. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37(10), 814-820.

Dufour, S., Clément, M. È., Chamberland, C., & Dubeau, D. (2011). Child abuse in a disciplinary context: A typology of violent family environments. Journal of family violence, 26(8), 595-606.

Fast, E. (2007). Child welfare response to child sexual abuse: too much or not enough? Montreal, CA: McGill University School of Social Work (August 2007), 72 pp.

Fallon, B.., Ma, J., Allan, K., Pillhofer, M., Trocmé, N., & Jud, A. (2013). Opportunities for prevention and intervention with young children: Lessons from the Canadian incidence study of reported child abuse and neglect. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 7(1).

Fortin, F., & Roy, J. (2006). Profils des consommateurs de pornographie juvénile arrêtés au Québec: l'explorateur, le pervers et le polymorphe. Criminologie, 107-128

Geoffrion, S., Morselli, C., & Guay, S. (2016). Rethinking Compassion Fatigue Through the Lens of Professional Identity The Case of Child-Protection Workers. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 17(3), 270-283.

Hassan, G., Thombs, B. D., Rousseau, C., Kirmayer, L. J., Feightner, J., Ueffing, E., & Pottie, K. (2011). Child maltreatment: Evidence review for newly arriving immigrants and refugees. (2011). Collaboration for Immigrant and Refugee Health, Appendix 12

Hébert, M., Blais, M., & Lavoie, F. (2017). Prevalence of teen dating victimization among a representative sample of high school students in Quebec. International journal of clinical and health psychology, 17(3), 225-233.

Hovdestad, W., Campeau, A., Potter, D., & Tonmyr, L. (2015). A Systematic Review of Childhood Maltreatment Assessments in Population-Representative Surveys Since 1990.PLoS ONE, 10(5), e0123366

Hurley, D., Alvarez, L., & Buckley, H. (2015). From the Zone of Risk to the Zone of Resilience. International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies, 6(1), 17-51.

Kerr, G., Stirling, A., & MacPherson, E. (2014). A Critical Examination of Child Protection Initiatives in Sport Contexts. Social Sciences, 3(4), 742-757

KPMG (2015). The Sheldon Kennedy Child Advocacy Centre: Social Return on Investment Study. Vancouver, CA: Author

Lefebvre, R., Fallon, B., Van Wert, M., & Filippelli, J. (2017). Examining the Relationship between Economic Hardship and Child Maltreatment Using Data from the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2013 (OIS-2013). Behavioral Sciences, 7(1), 6.

Lavergne, C., Damant, D., Clément, M. È., Bourassa, C., Lessard, G., & Turcotte, P. (2011). Key decisions in child protection services in cases of domestic violence: maintaining services and out‐of‐home placement. Child & Family Social Work, 16(3), 353-363.

Lessard, G., Drouin, M.-E., Germain, A.-S., Alvarez-Lizotte, P., & Turcotte, P. (2014). Concerted Practice-Based Actions in Intimate Partner and Family Violence: When the Children’s Well-Being Is the Central Concern. Social Sciences, 3(4),650-671.

MacMillan, H. L. (2000). Preventive health care, 2000 update: Prevention of child maltreatment. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 163(11), 1451-1458.

MacMillan, H. L., Jamieson, E., Wathen, C. N., Boyle, M. H., Walsh, C. A., Omura, J., ... & Lodenquai, G. (2007). Development of a Policy‐Relevant Child Maltreatment Research Strategy. Milbank Quarterly, 85(2), 337-374.

MacMillan, H. L., Fleming, J. E., Trocmé, N., Boyle, M. H., Wong, M., Racine, Y. A., ... & Offord, D. R. (1997). Prevalence of child physical and sexual abuse in the community: results from the Ontario Health Supplement.JAMA, 278(2), 131-135.

MacMillan, H. L., Boyle, M. H., Wong, M. Y. Y., Duku, E. K., Fleming, J. E., & Walsh, C. A. (1999). Slapping and spanking in childhood and its association with lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a general population sample. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 161(7), 805-809.

Maas, K. (2014). Suicide Prevention in Child Welfare: The Quebec Experience. International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies, 5(1), 144-157.

McTavish, J. R., Kimber, M., Devries, K., Colombini, M., MacGregor, J. C., Wathen, C. N., ... & MacMillan, H. L. (2017). Mandated reporters’ experiences with reporting child maltreatment: a meta-synthesis of qualitative studies. BMJ open, 7(10), e013942

Marshall, B. D., Galea, S., Wood, E., & Kerr, T. (2013). Longitudinal associations between types of childhood trauma and suicidal behavior among substance users: A cohort study. American journal of public health, 103(9), e69-e75

Meng, X., & D’Arcy, C. (2016). Gender moderates the relationship between childhood abuse and internalizing and substance use disorders later in life: A cross-sectional analysis. BMC Psychiatry, 16, 401.

Moynihan, M., Pitcher, C., & Saewyc, E. (2018). Interventions that Foster Healing Among Sexually Exploited Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review.  Journal of Child Sexual Abuse.

Myles, Daniel ; Trottier, Daniel. (2017). Leveraging Visibility, Gaining Capital? Social Media Use in the Fight Against Child Abusers: The Case of The Judge Beauce. Social Media and Society, 3(1).

Newbury, Joanne B. ; Arseneault, Louise ; Moffitt, Terrie E. ; Caspi, Avshalom ; Danese, Andrea ; Baldwin, Jessie R. ; Fisher, Helen L. (2018). Measuring childhood maltreatment to predict early-adult psychopathology: Comparison of prospective informant-reports and retrospective self-reports. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 96, 57–64.

Norman, J. (2017). Implications of Parenting Behaviour and Adolescent Attachment for Understanding Adolescent Sexting (Doctoral dissertation, University of Windsor (Canada).

Perron, J. L., Lee, C. M., LaRoche, K. J., Ateah, C., Clément, M. È., & Chan, K. (2014). Child and parent characteristics associated with Canadian parents’ reports of spanking. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health, 33(2), 31-45.

Provincial Child Sexual Abuse Advisory Committee (2013). Children’s Sexual Behaviours: A Parent’s Guide. Prince Edward Island, Canada. 10 pp.

Shields, M., Hovdestad, W., & Tonmyr, L. (2015). Assessment of the quality of the childhood physical abuse measure in the National Population Health Survey. Health reports, 26(5), 3-10.

Shields, M. E., Hovdestad, W. E., Pelletier, C., Dykxhoorn, J. L., O’Donnell, S. C., & Tonmyr, L. (2016). Childhood maltreatment as a risk factor for diabetes: Findings from a population-based survey of Canadian adults. BMC Public Health, 16(1), 879.

Shields, M., Tonmyr, L., & Hovdestad, W. (2016). Is child sexual abuse declining in Canada? Results from nationally representative retrospective surveys. Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada Research, Policy and Practice, 36(11), 9 pp.

Silverstone, P. H., Greenspan, F., Silverstone, M., Sawa, H., & Linder, J. (2016). A Complex Multimodal 4-Week Residential Treatment Program Significantly Reduces PTSD Symptoms in Child Sexual Abuse Victims: The Be Brave Ranch. Journal of Child and Adolescent Behavior, 4(1), 275-280.

Smith, W. G., Metcalfe, M., Cormode, E. J., & Holder, N. (2005). Approach to evaluation of sexual assault in children. Experience of a secondary-level regional pediatric sexual assault clinic. Canadian family physician, 51(10), 1347-1351

Tessier, Nicholas G., O’Higgins, Aoife, & Flynn, Robert J. (2018). Neglect, educational success, and young people in out-of-home care: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Child Abuse & Neglect, 75, 115-129.

Tonmyr, L., Li, Y. A., Williams, G., Scott, D., & Jack, S. M. (2010). Patterns of reporting by health care and nonhealth care professionals to child protection services in Canada.Paediatrics & child health, 15(8), e25

Tonmyr, L., Mathews, B., Shields, M. E., Hovdestad, W. E., & Afifi, T. O. (2018). Does mandatory reporting legislation increase contact with child protection?–a legal doctrinal review and an analytical examination. BMC public health, 18(1), 1021.

Trocmé, N., MacMillan, H., Fallon, B., & De Marco, R. (2003). Nature and severity of physical harm caused by child abuse and neglect: results from the Canadian Incidence Study. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 169(9), 911-915.

Trocmé, N., Roy, C., & Esposito, T. (2016). Building research capacity in child welfare in Canada. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 10, 16.

Vaillancourt-Morel, M. P., Godbout, N., Bédard, M. G., Charest, É., Briere, J., & Sabourin, S. (2016). Emotional and sexual correlates of child sexual abuse as a function of self-definition status. Child maltreatment, 21(3), 228-238.

Van Wert, Melissa, Fallon, Barbara, Trocme, Nico, & Collin-Vezina, Delphine. (2018). Educational neglect: Understanding 20 years of child welfare trends. Child Abuse & Neglect, 75, 50-60.

Ward, M. G., Ornstein, A., Niec, A., & Murray, C. L. (2013). The medical assessment of bruising in suspected child maltreatment cases: A clinical perspective. Paediatric child health, 18(8),433-437.

What victims of crime can expect from the criminal justice system: Victims of crime protocol. 2007.


Pérez Benítez, C. I., Vicente, B., Zlotnick, C., Kohn, R., Johnson, J., Valdivia, S., & Rioseco, P. (2009). Estudio epidemiológico de sucesos traumáticos, trastorno de estrés post-traumático y otros trastornos psiquiátricos en una muestra representativa de Chile.Salud mental, 32(2), 145-153.

Tornero, M. D. L. A., & Capella, C. (2017). Change during Psychotherapy through Sand Play Tray in Children That Have Been Sexually Abused. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 617.


Efficacy of Child Advocacy Centers: A Bibliography. (2011). National Children's Advocacy Center. MANDARIN TRANSLATION

Chan, K. L. (2014). Polyvictimisation et comportements à risque chez des élèves chinois du High School. Criminologie, 47(1), 85-103.

Chin, K. H. (2014). Growing Problem in Rural Areas: Child Trafficking. Seton Hall University Law School Student Scholarship, Paper 420. 30 pp

Cross, T. P., Jones, L. M., Walsh, W. A., & SImone, M. (2006) Executive Summary: Findings from the UNH Multi-Site Evaluation of Children's Advocacy Centers. Crimes Against Children Research Center, University of New Hampshire. MANDARIN TRANSLATION.

Fang, X., Fry, D. A., Ji, K., Finkelhor, D., Chen, J., Lannen, P., & Dunne, M. P. (2015). The burden of child maltreatment in China: A systematic review. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 93(3), 176-185C.

National Children's Advocacy Center (2011). Forensic Interview Structure MANDARIN TRANSLATION

Hua, J., Mu, Z., Nwaru, B. I., Gu, G., Meng, W., & Wu, Z. (2014). Child neglect in one-child families from Suzhou City of Mainland China. BMC international health and human rights, 14(1), 8.

Kang, X., Fang, Y., Li, S., Liu, Y., Zhao, D., Feng, X., ... & Li, P. (2018). The Benefits of Indirect Exposure to Trauma: The Relationships among Vicarious Posttraumatic Growth, Social Support, and Resilience in Ambulance Personnel in China. Psychiatry investigation.

Leung, P. W., Wong, W. C., Chen, W. Q., & Tang, C. S. (2008). Prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment among high school students in Southern China: A large scale school based surveyChild and adolescent psychiatry and mental health, 2, 27.

Xuan Liu (2016). A Review of Child Sexual Abuse in China and A CSA Prevention Program for Chinese Preschool-aged Children. University of Victoria

Zhang, W., Chen, J., & Liu, F. (2015). Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Early.  Preschool Teachers’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Their Training Education in China.  SAGE Open, 5(1), 2158244015571187.


Oxman, N. (2011). Aspectos político-criminales y criminológicos de la criminalización de la posesión de pornografía infantil en Estados Unidos de Norteamérica. Política criminal, 6(12), 252-294.S


Ajduković, M., Sušac, N., & Rajter, M. (2013). Gender and age differences in prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse in Croatia. Croatian Medical Journal, 54(5), 469-479.

Jakupcevic, K. K., & Ajdukovic, M. (2011). Risk factors of child physical abuse by parents with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder. Croatian Medical Journal, 52, 25-34.

Konopka, L. M. (2015). The impact of child abuse: Neuroscience perspective.Croatian Medical Journal, 56(3), 315–316

Sesar, K., Šimić, N., & Barišić, M. (2010). Multi-type childhood abuse, strategies of coping, and psychological adaptations in young adults. Croatian Medical Journal, 51(5), 406-416.


Elklit, A., Karstoft, K. I., Armour, C., Feddern, D., & Christoffersen, M. (2013). Predicting criminality from child maltreatment typologies and posttraumatic stress symptoms. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 4.

Elklit, A., & Schouwenaars, K. (2017).The relationship between child maltreatment and exposure to traumatic events during later adolescence and young adulthood. Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology, 4(3), 115-122.

Pontoppidan, M. (2015). The effectiveness of the Incredible Years™ Parents and Babies Program as a universal prevention intervention for parents of infants in Denmark: Study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial. Trials, 16(1), 386-396.

Pontoppidan, M., Klest, S. K., & Sandoy, T. M. (2016). The Incredible Years Parents and Babies Program: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. PloS one, 11(12), e0167592.

Sanderud, K., Murphy, S., & Elklit, A. (2016). Child maltreatment and ADHD symptoms in a sample of young adults. European journal of psychotraumatology, 7.


Corso, P., & Roldos, M. (2012). A comparison of willingness to pay to prevent child maltreatment deaths in Ecuador and the United States. Injury prevention, 18(Suppl 1), A181-A181.


Girgira, T., Tilahun, B., & Bacha, T. (2014). Time to presentation, pattern and immediate health effects of alleged child sexual abuse at two tertiary hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. BMC Public Health, 14(1), 92-97.

Jemal, J. (2012). The child sexual abuse epidemic in Addis Ababa: Some reflections on reported incidents, psychosocial consequences and implications.Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences, 22(1), 59-66.

Mekuria, A., Nigussie, A., & Abera, M. (2015). Childhood sexual abuse experiences and its associated factors among adolescent female high school students in Arbaminch town, Gammo Goffa zone, Southern Ethiopia: A mixed method study. BMC international health and human rights, 15(1), 21.

Tefera, M. (2017). Magnitude and patterns of child sexual abuse: A retrospective cross-sectional study among male pediatric patients at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, 31(4), 221-227.


Inkilä, J., Flinck, A., Luukkaala, T., Åstedt-Kurki, P., & Paavilainen, E. (2013). Interprofessional collaboration in the detection of and early intervention in child maltreatment: Employees' experiences. Nursing Research and Practice, 2013.

Rehan, W., Antfolk, J., Johansson, A., Jern, P., & Santtila, P. (2017). Experiences of severe childhood maltreatment, depression, anxiety and alcohol abuse among adults in Finland. PLoS ONE, 12(5), e0177252.


Bailhache, M., Leroy, V., Pillet, P., & Salmi, L. R. (2013). Is early detection of abused children possible?: a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of the identification of abused children. BMC pediatrics, 13(1), 1.

Debauche, A. (2015). Les violences sexuelles intrafamiliales: un support pour la visibilisation des violences sexuelles?. Enfances Familles Générations, 22, 136-158.

Picherot, G., Vabres, N., Fleury, J., Launay, E., & Gras-Leguen, C. (2012). How do we recognize recent sexual abuse in children less than 10 years of age? What is the role of Paediatric Wards? Experience in a French Paediatric Hospital. In E. A. Kalfoğlu (Ed.), Sexual abuse - breaking the silence, p. 127-136.


Arnold, J., & Schuhrke, B. (2009). Kinder und Jugendliche mit problematischem sexuellen Verhalten in (teil-) stationären Hilfen zur Erziehung. Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie, 58(3), 186-214.

Beelmann, A. (2006). Wirksamkeit von Präventionsmaßnahmen bei Kindern und Jugendlichen.Zeitschrift für klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 35(2), 151-162.

Cremers, M., & Krabel, J. (2012). Generalverdacht und sexueller Missbrauch in Kitas: Bausteine für ein Schutzkonzept1. Herausgegeben von, 8.

Egle, U. T., & Cierpka, M. (2006). Missbrauch, Misshandlung, Vernachlässigung.Gesundheitsförderung im Kindes-und Jugendalter, 370-400.

Eichenberg, C. (2006). Sexueller Kindesmissbrauch und Internet: Zwischen Prävention und Kriminalität. Zeitschrift für Psychotraumatologie und Psychologische Medizin, 4, 57-72.

Fegert, J. M., & Stötzel, M. (2016). Child protection: A universal concern and a permanent challenge in the field of child and adolescent mental health. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 10, 18.

Fischer, S., Dölitzsch, C., Schmeck, K., Fegert, J. M., & Schmid, M. (2016). Interpersonal trauma and associated psychopathology in girls and boys living in residential care. Children and youth services review, 67, 203-211.

Habetha, S., Bleich, S., Weidenhammer, J., & Fegert, J. M. (2012). A prevalence-based approach to societal costs occurring in consequence of child abuse and neglect. Child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health, 6(1), 6-35.

Helming, E.  (2013). Und wenn irgendwie ein Problem auftaucht, ein ernstes volles Problem, also ganz helfen können sie dir auch nicht aus dem Problem, aber man kann drüber reden und schaun, wie man des alles machen kann. IzKK - Informationszentrum

Herber, B. (2003). Medizinische, kriminalistische und juristische Aspekte von begutachteten Kindesmisshandlungen am Zentrum der Rechtsmedizin Frankfurt (1994-1999).

Herrmann, B. (2005). Medizinische Diagnostik bei körperlicher Kindesmisshandlung. Kinder-und Jugendarzt, 36(2), 96-107.

Herzog, J. I., & Schmahl, C. (2018). Adverse Childhood Experiences and the Consequences on Neurobiological, Psychosocial, and Somatic Conditions Across the Lifespan. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9, 420.

Iffland, B., Brähler, E., Neuner, F., Häuser, W., & Glaesmer, H. (2013). Frequency of child maltreatment in a representative sample of the German population.BMC public health, 13(1), 980-987.

Jacobi, G., Dettmeyer, R., Banaschak, S., Brosig, B., & Herrmann, B. (2010). Child Abuse and Neglect: Diagnosis and Management.Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, 107(13), 231–40. 

Jacobi, G., Dettmeyer, R., Banaschak, S., Brosig, B., & Herrmann, B. (2010). Misshandlung und Vernachlässigung von Kindern–Diagnose und Vorgehen.Dtsch Arztebl Int, 107(13), 231-240.

Kindler, H. (2011). Wirksamkeit von Maßnahmen zur Prävention und Intervention im Fall sexueller Gewalt gegen Kinder. München: AMYNA e.V.- Institut zur Prävention von sexuellem Missbrauch,

Kneifel, G. (n.d.) Sexualle Mishandlungen sind so häufig wie Asthma; Emotional vernachlässigte Kinder leiden besonders oft unter Gewalt – bei sexuellen Misshandlungen, Die Symptome. "Zahlen sprechen eine deutliche. Göttingen: gegen-missbrauch. 4 p.

Noeker, M., & Keller, K. M. (2002). Münchhausen-by-proxy-Syndrom als Kindesmisshandlung.Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde, 150(11), 1357-1369.

Rausch, S., Herzog, J., Thome, J., Ludäscher, P., Müller-Engelmann, M., Steil, R., ... & Kleindienst, N. (2016). Women with exposure to childhood interpersonal violence without psychiatric diagnoses show no signs of impairment in general functioning, quality of life and sexuality. Borderline personality disorder and emotion dysregulation, 3(1), 13 pp

Schilling, C., Weidner, K., Brähler, E., Glaesmer, H., Häuser, W., & Pöhlmann, K. (2016). Patterns of childhood abuse and neglect in a representative German population sample. PLoS one, 11(7), e0159510.

Verlinden, K., Scharmanski, S., Urbann, K., & Bienstein, P. (2016). Preventing Sexual Abuse of Children and Adolescents with Disabilities–Evaluation Results of a Prevention Training for University Students. International Journal of Technology and Inclusive Education, 5(2), 859-867.

Wahl, N. (2011). Phänomenologische, kriminologische und epidemiologische Aspekte der Kindesmisshandlung im Großraum Hamburg. Eine retrospektive Analyse der klinisch rechtsmedizinischen Untersuchungen 1988 bis 2004.

Weller, K. (2010). Kindheit, Sexualität und die Rolle der Medien. tv diskurs, 51(1), 54-57.

Wiehn, J., Hornberg, C., & Fischer, F. (2018). How adverse childhood experiences relate to single and multiple health risk behaviours in German public university students: a cross-sectional analysis. BMC public health, 18(1), 1005


Andreou, E. (2001). Bully/victim problems and their association with coping behaviour in conflictual peer interactions among school-age children. Educational Psychology, 21(1), 59-66.

Bibou-Nakou, I., & Markos, A. (2017). Greek teachers’ experience and perceptions of child abuse/neglect. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 1-18.

Georgiou, S. N., & Stavrinides, P. (2008). Bullies, victims and bully-victims psychosocial profiles and attribution styles. School Psychology International, 29(5), 574-589.

Kalogiratou, A. “Η Ανάμνηση Παιδικής Σεξουαλικής Κακοποίησης και τα ΜΜΕ: Προβληματισμοί και Θέματα Δεοντολογίας (The Recollection of Childhood Sexual Abuse Memories and the Mass Media), In: O.Giotakos, V.Prekate (eds.),” Sexual Abuse: Secret No More. Greek Letters, Athens, Greece. 7 p.

Kitta, M., Gouva ,M., Hadjigeorgiou, G., George, K., & Bonotis, K. (2016). Childhood Trauma and Adult Distress Symptoms. Journal of Traumatic Stress Disorders and Treatment, 5(3).

The Smile of the Child (2014). Summary of agency services and activities.

NCAC Infographic -Greek language version


Hong Kong

Chan, K. (2011). Children exposed to child maltreatment and intimate partner violence: A study of co-occurrence among Hong Kong Chinese families.Child Abuse & Neglect, 35(7), 532-542

Chan, K. L. (2012). Comparison of parent and child reports on child maltreatment in a representative household sample in Hong Kong. Journal of Family Violence, 27(1), 11-21.


Bjørnseth, I., & Szabo, A. (2018). Sexual Violence Against Children in Sports and Exercise: A Systematic Literature Review .Journal of Child Sexual Abuse.

Enyedy, A., Tsikouras, P., & Csorba, R. (2018). Medical and legal aspects of child sexual abuse: a population-based study in a Hungarian county. International journal of environmental research and public health, 15(4), 701.


Freydís jóna freysteinsdóttir. (2004). Risk Factors for Repeated Child Maltreatment.

Lanzarote Committee members visit Iceland's Children's House (2012).

Gudbrandsson, B.(2012). Presentation-"The Children's House-Barnahus: The Multidisciplinary Response to Child's Disclosure of Abuse". The Government Agency for Child Protection-Iceland.


Arora, S. K., Shah, D., Chaturvedi, S., & Gupta, P. (2015). Defining and measuring vulnerability in young people.Indian journal of community medicine, 40(3), 193.

Banwari, G. H. (2013). Adolescent male peer sexual abuse: An issue often neglected. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 35(4), 394-396.

Behere, P. B., Saha, G., & Sinha, A. (2016). Child sexual abuse: Indian scenario.  Indian Psychiatric Society. 114 pp.

Betancourt, T. S., Zuilkowski, S. S., Ravichandran, A., Einhorn, H., Arora, N., Bhattacharya Chakravarty, A., & Brennan, R. T. (2015). Development of the SAFE Checklist Tool for Assessing Site-Level Threats to Child Protection: Use of Delphi Methods and Application to Two Sites in India. PLoS ONE, 10(11), e0141222.

Choudhry, V., Dayal, R., Pillai, D., Kalokhe, A. S., Beier, K., & Patel, V. (2018). Child sexual abuse in India: A systematic review. PloS one, 13(10), e0205086.

Damodaran, D. K., Rapheal, J., & Paul, V. K. (2014). Childhood Psychological Abuse and Mental Health of Youth.The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 2(1), 59-69.

Damodaran, D. K., Rapheal, J., & Paul, V. K. (2014). Child Maltreatment in the Indian Context. The International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies, 4(10), 333-339

Deb, S., & Modak, S. (2010). Prevalence of violence against children in families in Tripura and its relationship with socio-economic factors. Journal of injury and violence research, 2(1), 5-18.

Devi, R., Sharma, V., & Shekhar, C. (2015). Maltreatment experiences as predictors of self-esteem and psychiatric morbidity among sheltered homeless adolescents. Journal of Indian Association for Child & Adolescent Mental Health, 11(3).

Dutta, T. (2013). Changing livelihood, disaster and human trafficking-A study of the disaster affected areas of Assam. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, 2(8). 4 p.

Gehlawat, P., Gehlawat, V. K., Singh, P., & Gupta, R. (2015). Munchausen syndrome by proxy: An alarming face of child abuse. Indian journal of psychological medicine, 37(1), 90-92.

Gray, C. L., Pence, B. W., Ostermann, J., Whetten, R. A., O'Donnell, K., Thielman, N. M., & Whetten, K. (2015). Gender (in) differences in prevalence and incidence of traumatic experiences among orphaned and separated children living in five low-and middle-income countries. Global Mental Health, 2, e3.

Halder, D., & Jaishankar, K. (2013). Revenge porn by teens in the United States and India: A socio-legal analysis. International Annals of Criminology, 51(1-2), 85-111.

Iyer, B. H. (2013, May). Analysis of Existing Legal Framework on Trafficking for CSEC. In 9th SAARC Chief Justices Conference.

Moirangthem, S., Kumar, N.C., & Math, S. B. (2015). Child sexual abuse: Issues & concerns. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 142,1-3.

Muchhal, M. K., & Kumar, A. (2016). Attitude of Parents, Teachers and Students towards Corporal Punishment. International Journal of Indian Psychology, 3(2), 125-130.

Nautiyal, P., & Mal, A. (2010). Towards protection of children against sexual abuse: No child's play. 3 NUJS L. REV.77. 16 pages. This paper addresses some areas of concern with the substantive and procedural aspects of the Offences against Children (Prevention) Bill, 2005, dealing with the issue of child sexual abuse,not only with respect to the Bill, but with the overarching scheme of child protection in India.

Raj, A., Saggurti, N., Winter, M., Labonte, A., Decker, M. R., Balaiah, D., & Silverman, J. G. (2010). The effect of maternal child marriage on morbidity and mortality of children under 5 in India: Cross sectional study of a nationally representative sample. British Medical Journal, 340. 9 pp

Seth, R., & Srivastava, R. (2017). Child Sexual Abuse: Management and Prevention, and Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act. Indian Pediatrics, 54, 949-953.

Srivastava, M., & Jayasurya, G. (2011). Sexual offenses against children: Emerging legal responses & legislative policy making. 13 p.

Subramaniyan, V. K. S., Reddy, P., Chandra, G., Rao, C., & Rao, T. S. S. (2017). Silence of male child sexual abuse in India: Qualitative analysis of barriers for seeking psychiatric help in a multidisciplinary unit in a general hospital. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 59(2), 202

UNICEF (2017). Child Online Protection in India. Author.


Azizi, M., & Shahhosseini, Z. (2017). Challenges of reporting child abuse by healthcare professionals: A narrative review. Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Sciences, 4(3), 110.

Mahram, M., Hosseinkhani, Z., Nedjat, S., & Aflatouni, A. (2013). Epidemiologic evaluation of child abuse and neglect in school-aged children of Qazvin Province, Iran. Iranian Journal of Pediatrics, 23(2), 159-164.

Navaei, M., Akbari-Kamrani, M., Esmaelzadeh-Saeieh, S., Farid, M., & Tehranizadeh, M. (2018). Effect of Group Counseling on Parents’ Self-Efficacy, Knowledge, Attitude, and Communication Practice in Preventing Sexual Abuse of Children Aged 2-6 Years: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. International Journal of Community Based Nursing and Midwifery, 6(4), 285-292.


Lalor, Kevin ; McElvaney, Rosaleen. (2010). Child Sexual Abuse, Links to Later Sexual Exploitation/High-Risk Sexual Behavior, and Prevention/Treatment Programs. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 20(4), 159-177. 

McElearney, A., Brennan-Wilson, A., Murphy, C., Stephenson, P., & Bunting, B. (2018). Cluster randomised controlled trial of ‘whole school’child maltreatment prevention programme in primary schools in Northern Ireland: study protocol for Keeping Safe. BMC public health, 18(1), 590.

Shannon, G. (2016). Ninth Report of the Special Rapporteur on Child Protection.


Sternberg, K. J., Lamb, M. E., Greenbaum, C., Cicchetti, D., Dawud, S., Cortes, R. M., ... & Lorey, F. (1993). Effects of domestic violence on children's behavior problems and depression.Developmental Psychology, 29(1), 44-52.


Ferrara, P., & Bernasconi, S. (2017). From “classic” child abuse and neglect to the new era of maltreatment. Italian Journal of Pediatrics, 43(1), 16.

Ferrara, P., Gatto, A., Manganelli, N. P., Ianniello, F., Amodeo, M. E., Amato, M., ... & Chiaretti, A. (2017). The impact of an educational program on recognition, treatment and report of child abuse. Italian Journal of Pediatrics, 43(1), 72.

Miragoli, S., Camisasca, E., & Di Blasio, P. (2015). Validation of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory in Italy. SAGE Open, 5(3), 2158244015597044.

Palazzi, S., De Girolamo, G., & Liverani, T. (2005). Observational study of suspected maltreatment in Italian paediatric emergency departments. Archives of disease in childhood, 90(4), 406-410.


Fujimoto, M., Hirose, T., Nakayama, T., Okawa, H., & Takigawa, I. (2007). Measuring Japanese mothers' perception of child abuse: Development of a Japanese version of the child abuse blame scale – physical abuse (CABS-PA-J). BioPsychoSocial Medicine.

Fujiwara, Takeo ; Nagase, Hiroaki ; Okuyama, Makiko ; Hoshino, Takahiro ; Aoki, Kazunori ; Nagashima, Tastuya ; Nakamura, Hajime. (2010). Validity of Caregivers’ Reports on Head Trauma Due to Falls in Young Children Aged Less than 2 Years. Clinical Medicine Insights: Pediatrics, 4,

Fujiwara, Takeo ; Okuyama, Makiko ; Tsui, Haley ; Koenen, Karestan C. (2008). Perinatal Factors Associated with Infant Maltreatment. Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics, 1.

Koizumi, M., & Takagishi, H. (2014). The Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Emotion Recognition. PloS one, 9(1), e86093

Newlin, C. (2013). 子どもの権利擁護センター(CAC) および CAC の司法面接者と医師たちの役割 Huntsville, AL: National Children's Advocacy Center.

Nambu, S., Nasu, A., Nishimura, S., Nishimura, A., & Fujiwara, S. (2011). Fatal child abuse in Japan: Does a trend exist toward tougher sentencing?. Journal of injury and violence research, 3(2), 74-79.

Ogai, Y., Senoo, E., Gardner, F. C., Haraguchi, A., Saito, T., Morita, N., & Ikeda, K. (2015). Association between experience of child abuse and severity of drug addiction measured by the addiction severity index among Japanese drug-dependent patients. International journal of environmental research and public health, 12(3), 2781-2792.

Takaoka, K., Mizoguchi, F., Wada, I., Nakazato, M., Shiraishi, T., Ando, S., ... & Shimizu, E. (2016). How parents suspected of child maltreatment change their cognition and behavior: A process model of outreach and child protection, generated via grounded theory. Children and Youth Services Review, 71, 257-265.

Yamada, F. (2015). 世界最初のCAC-National Children’s Advocacy Center.


Al‐Hassan, S. M., & Lansford, J. E. (2011). Evaluation of the better parenting programme in Jordan. Early Child Development and Care, 181(5), 587-598.


Shipman, H. R. (2016). Exploring local understandings of child sexual abuse: Voices from an  informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. Doctoral thesis, University of Huddersfield.

Mutavi, T., Obondo, A., Kokonya, D., Khasakhala, L., Mbwayo, A., Njiri, F., & Mathai, M. (2018). Incidence of depressive symptoms among sexually abused children in Kenya. Child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health, 12(1), 40.


Mulambia, Y., Miller, A. J., MacDonald, G., & Kennedy, N. (2018). Are one-stop centres an appropriate model to deliver services to sexually abused children in urban Malawi?. BMC pediatrics, 18(1), 145.


Ahmed, A., Wan-Yuen, C., Marret, M. J., Guat-Sim, C., Othman, S., & Chinna, K. (2015). Child Maltreatment Experience among Primary School Children: A Large Scale Survey in Selangor State, Malaysia. PLoS ONE, 10(3), e0119449.


Acharya, A. K., Padilla y Sotelo, L. S., & Cervantes Niño, J. J. (2018). The Harmful Sexual and Non-Sexual Behaviors of Trafficked Women and Children in Mexico: A Study of Victims of Sexual Exploitation. Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence, 3(2), 3.

Frias, S. M., & Gómez-Zaldívar, M. (2017). Child and Adolescent Commercial Sexual Exploitation in Mexico: The Exploiters and the State. Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence, 2(4), 9.

Garrocho-Rangel, A., Márquez-Preciado, R., Olguín-Vivar, A.-I., Ruiz-Rodríguez, S., & Pozos-Guillén, A. (2015). Dentist attitudes and responsibilities concerning child sexual abuse. A review and a case report.Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry, 7(3), e428–e434.

Knaul, F. M., & Ramirez, M. A. (2005). "Family violence and child abuse in Latin America and the Caribbean: The cases of Columbia and Mexico", IADB, Sustainable Development Department Technical Papers Series, SOC-137. 57 p.

Loza, O., Strathdee, S. A., Lozada, R., Staines, H., Ojeda, V. D., Martínez, G. A., ... & Patterson, T. L. (2010). Correlates of early versus later initiation into sex work in two Mexico–US border cities. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46(1), 37-44.

Peña, F., Castillo, T., & Campo, C. (2016). Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Evaluation of the Program “Sharing Mouth to Mouth: My Body, Nobody Can Touch It”. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering, 10(5), 1612-1617

School Manual on Emergency Preparedness and Response (2010). Namibia. 64 p.

Servin, A. E., Brouwer, K. C., Gordon, L., Rocha-Jimenez, T., Staines, H., Vera-Monroy, R. B., ... & Silverman, J. G. (2015). Vulnerability Factors and Pathways Leading to Underage Entry into Sex Work in two Mexican-US Border Cities.The journal of applied research on children, 6(1). 15 pp


Bosma, A. K., Mulder, E., Pemberton, A., & Vingerhoets, A. J. (2018). Observer Reactions to Emotional Victims of Serious Crimes: Stereotypes and Expectancy Violations. Psychology, Crime & Law, (just-accepted), 1-45.

De Lijster, Gaby P. A., Felten, Hanneke, Kok, Gerjo, & Kocken, Paul L. (2016). Effects of an Interactive School-Based Program for Preventing Adolescent Sexual Harassment: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Evaluation Study. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45, 874–886.

Duin, L., Bevaart, F., Paalman, C. H., Luijks, M. J. A., Zijlmans, J., Marhe, R., ... & Popma, A. (2017). Child Protection Service interference in childhood and the relation with mental health problems and delinquency in young adulthood: A latent class analysis study. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 11(1), 66.

Honings, S., Drukker, M., ten Have, M., de Graaf, R., van Dorsselaer, S., & van Os, J. (2017). The interplay of psychosis and victimisation across the life course: a prospective study in the general population. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 52(11), 1363–1374.

Jansen, D. E., Veenstra, R., Ormel, J., Verhulst, F. C., & Reijneveld, S. A. (2011). Early risk factors for being a bully, victim, or bully/victim in late elementary and early secondary education. The longitudinal TRAILS study. BMC Public Health, 11(1), 1.

Kunseler, F. C., Oosterman, M., de Moor, M. H., Verhage, M. L., & Schuengel, C. (2016). Weakened Resilience in Parenting Self-Efficacy in Pregnant Women Who Were Abused in Childhood: An Experimental Test. PloS one, 11(2), e0141801.

Mejdoubi, J., van den Heijkant, S. C., van Leerdam, F. J., Heymans, M. W., Crijnen, A., & Hirasing, R. A. (2015). The Effect of VoorZorg, the Dutch Nurse-Family Partnership, on Child Maltreatment and Development: A Randomized Controlled Trial.PloS one, 10(4)

Oldehinkel, A. J., & Ormel, J. (2015). A longitudinal perspective on childhood adversities and onset risk of various psychiatric disorders.European child & adolescent psychiatry, 24(6), 641-650.

Pouwels, J. L., Scholte, R. H., van Noorden, T. H., & Cillessen, A. H. (2016). Interpretations of bullying by bullies, victims, and bully‐victims in interactions at different levels of abstraction. Aggressive behavior, 42(1), 54-65.

Reijntjes, A., Vermande, M., Olthof, T., Goossens, F. A., Aleva, L., & van der Meulen, M. (2016). Defending victimized peers: Opposing the bully, supporting the victim, or both?. Aggressive behavior.  13 pp.

Schouten, M. C. M., van Stel, H. F., Verheij, T. J. M., Nieuwenhuis, E. E. S., & van de Putte, E. M. (2016). A screening protocol for child abuse at out-of-hours primary care locations: A descriptive study. BMC Family Practice, 17, 155.

Schouten, M. C., van Stel, H. F., Verheij, T. J., Houben, M. L., Russel, I. M., Nieuwenhuis, E. E., & van de Putte, E. M. (2017). The value of a checklist for child abuse in out-of-hours primary care: to screen or not to screen. PLoS one, 12(1), e0165641.

Sittig, J. S., Uiterwaal, C. S., Moons, K. G., Russel, I. M., Nievelstein, R. A., Nieuwenhuis, E. E., & van de Putte, E. M. (2016). Value of systematic detection of physical child abuse at emergency rooms: A cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study. BMJ open, 6(3), e010788.

Snoeren, F., Hoefnagels, C., Evers, S. M., & Lamers-Winkelman, F. (2013). Design of a prospective study on mental health and quality of life of maltreated children (ages5-16) after a report to an advice and reporting center on child abuse and neglect. BMC Public Health, 13.21 p.

Snoeren, F., Hoefnagels, C., Lamers-Winkelman, F., Baeten, P., & Evers, S. M. (2013). Design of a quasi-experiment on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of using the child-interview intervention during the investigation following a report of child abuse and/or neglect. BMC public health, 13(1), 1164.

Teeuw, A. H., Derkx, B. H. F., Koster, W. A., & vam Rijn, R. R. (2012). Educational Paper: Detection of child abuse and neglect at the emergency room. European Journal of Pediatrics, 171(6), 877-885.

van Duin, E. M., Verlinden, E., Vrolijk-Bosschaart, T. F., Diehle, J., Verhoeff, A. P., Brilleslijper-Kater, S. N., & Lindauer, R. J. (2018). Sexual abuse in very young children: A psychological assessment in the Amsterdam Sexual Abuse Case study. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 9(1).

Van der Hart, O., Nijenhuis, E. R., & Steele, K. (2005). Dissociation: An insufficiently recognized major feature of complex posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18(5), 413-423.

van der Put, C. E., Assink, M., Gubbels, J., & van Solinge, N. F. B. (2017). Identifying Effective Components of Child Maltreatment Interventions: A Meta-analysis. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 1-32.

van der Put, C. E., Hermanns, J., van Rijn-van Gelderen, L., & Sondeijker, F. (2016). Detection of unsafety in families with parental and/or child developmental problems at the start of family support. BMC psychiatry, 16(1), 1.

Vrolijk-Bosschaart, T. F., Brilleslijper-Kater, S. N., Widdershoven, G. A., Teeuw, A. R. H., Verlinden, E., Voskes, Y., ... & Lindauer, R. J. (2017). Physical symptoms in very young children assessed for sexual abuse: A mixed method analysis from the ASAC study. European Journal of Pediatrics, 1-10.

Vrolijk-Bosschaart, T. F., Brilleslijper-Kater, S. N., Benninga, M. A., Lindauer, R. J., & Teeuw, A. H. (2018). Clinical practice: recognizing child sexual abuse—what makes it so difficult?. European journal of pediatrics, 1-8

van Nijnatten, C., Hopman, M., & Knijn, T. (2014). Child Protection Victims and the “Evil Institutions”. Social Sciences, 3(4), 726-741.

Wubs, D., Batstra, L., & Grietens, H. W. (2017). Speaking With and Without Words—An Analysis of Foster Children’s Expressions and Behaviors That Are Suggestive of Prior Sexual Abuse. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 1-18


Akinwumi, O. S. (2010). Legal impediments on the practical implementation of the Child Right Act 2003. International Journal of Legal Information, 37(3), 385-396.

Akin-Odanye, E. O. (2018). Prevalence and management of child sexual abuse cases presented at Nigerian hospitals: A systematic review. Journal of Health and Social Sciences, 3(2), 109-124

Alkali, A. U., Bukar, L., & Ansari, G. U. (2015). EXPLODING THE ROLE OF RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS IN COMBATING CHILD TRAFFICKING IN NIGERIA. Jurnal Mimbar Hukum Fakultas Hukum Universitas Gadjah Mada, 26(3), 518-533.

Arulogun, O. S., Ogbu, I. A., & Dipeolu, I. O. (2016). Influence of internet exposure on sexual behaviour of young persons in an urban district of Southwest Nigeria. The Pan African Medical Journal, 25.

Ashimi, A. O., Amole, T. G., & Ugwa, E. A. (2015). Reported sexual violence among women and children seen at the gynaecological emergency unit of a rural tertiary health facility, northwest Nigeria. Annals of medical and health sciences research, 5(1), 26-29.

Bakare Yetunde Oluwakemisola, & Oyero Olusola (2017). Parents’ perception of media reports on child sexual abuse: A study of OTA, OGUN State. Ota, Nigeria: Covenant University.

Fakunmoju, Sunday B. ; Bammeke, Funmi O. (2013). Development of Perception of Child Maltreatment Scale: Reliability and Validity Analyses, Sage Open, 3(2).

Tayo, A. B., & Olawuyi, B. O. (2016). Parental Communication as a Tool Kit for Preventing Sexual Abuse among Adolescent Secondary School Students. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(13), 116-123.


Albaek, Ane U. ; Kinn, Liv G. ; Milde, Anne M. (2017). Walking Children Through a Minefield: How Professionals Experience Exploring Adverse Childhood Experiences. Qualitative Health Research, 28(2), 231-244.

Bakketeig, E. Berg, M., Myklebust, T., & Stefansen, K. (2012). Barnehus-Evalueringen 2012. Oslo.

Flåm, A. M., & Haugstvedt, E. (2013).Test balloons? Small signs of big events: A qualitative study on circumstances facilitating adults' awareness of children's first signs of abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37(9), 633-642.

Flåm, A. M., & Handegård, B. H. (2015). Where is the child in family therapy service after family violence? A study from the Norwegian Family Protection Service. Contemporary family therapy, 37(1), 72-87.

Greger, H. K., Myhre, A. K., Lydersen, S., & Jozefiak, T. (2016). Child maltreatment and quality of life: A study of adolescents in residential care. Health and quality of life outcomes, 14(1), 74.

Kjeldsen, A., Janson, H., Stoolmiller, M., Torgersen, L., & Mathiesen, K. S. (2014). Externalising behaviour from infancy to mid-adolescence: Latent profiles and early predictors. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 35(1), 25-34.

Langballe, Å., & Davik, T. (2017). Sequential interviews with preschool children in Norwegian barnahus. In Collaborating Against Child Abuse (pp. 165-183). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

International Investigative Interviewing Research Group (2010). Bulletin 2(2).

Norwegian Ministry of Justice and the Police. Fact Sheet.

Sheikh, M. A., Abelsen, B., & Olsen, J. A. (2016). Clarifying associations between childhood adversity, social support, behavioral factors, and mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood: A population-based study. Frontiers in psychology, 7, 24 pp.

Sørbø, M. F., Grimstad, H., Bjørngaard, J.H., Schei, B., & Lukasse, M. (2012). Prevalence of sexual, physical and emotional abuse in the Norwegian mother and child cohort study. BMC Public Health, 13, 186-197.

Stefansen, K., Gundersen, T., & Bakketeig, E. (2012). Barnehusevalueringen 2012. DELRAPPORT 2. Norsk institutt for forskning om oppvekst, velferd og aldring


Al-Saadoon, M., Al-Sharbati, M., El Nour, I., & Al-Said, B. (2012). Child Maltreatment: Types and effects: Series of six cases from a university hospital in Oman.Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, 12(1), 97.


Barrios, Y. V., Gelaye, B., Zhong, Q., Nicolaidis, C., Rondon, M. B., Garcia, P. J., … Williams, M. A. (2015). Association of Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse with Intimate Partner Violence, Poor General Health and Depressive Symptoms among Pregnant Women. PLoS ONE, 10(1), e0116609.


Ain, N. E. (2017). Prevention of Child Abuse Through Awareness and Curriculum Design. Psychology, 7(2), 112-118

Ali, S. R. (2015). The Economic Position of Family And Its Relation With Child Trafficking: A Study From The Perspective of Policy Analyst And Experts.VFAST Transactions on Education and Social Sciences, 6(1), 8-16


Mordeno, I. G., Go, G. P., & Yangson-Serondo, A. (2017). Examining the dimensional structure models of secondary traumatic stress based on DSM-5 symptoms. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 25, 154-160. 

Roche, S. (2017). Child Protection and Maltreatment in the Philippines: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies, 4(1), 104-128


Adamczyk, B. (2016). ''Bad touch''(pedophilia)–the stolen innocence of a child. The analysis of the phenomenon and the forms of aid offered to pedophiles' victims in Poland. Вісник Житомирського державного університету імені Івана Франка, 1 (83), 3-9.


Jardim, P., Ribeiro, C., Oral, R., & Magalhães, T. (2013).Portuguese management of child abuse and neglect.Slide presentation.

Lourenço, L., Silva, M., Lisboa, L., Mota, T. C. D., & Ribeiro, A. (2013). Síndrome do bebé abanado: experiência de 10 anos de um Serviço de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos. Nascer e Crescer, 22(2), 72-74.

National Children's Advocacy Center (2012). National Children's Advocacy Center's Forensic Interview Structure-Portuguese translation.

Puerto Rico

Sledjeski, E. M., Dierker, L. C., Bird, H. R., & Canino, G. (2009). Predicting child maltreatment among Puerto Rican children from migrant and non-migrant families. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33(6), 382-392.


Duncea, R. M., Apostol, I., Calota, R. G., & Belis, V. (2017). Forensic and clinical diagnosis in" shaken baby syndrome", between child abuse and iatrogenic abuse. Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences, 4(1), 13-18.

Rada, C. (2014). Violence against women by male partners and against children within the family: Prevalence, associated factors, and intergenerational transmission in Romania, a cross-sectional study. BMC Public health, 14(1), 129-143.

Szentágotai-Tătar , A., & Miu, A. C. (2016). Individual Differences in Emotion Regulation, Childhood Trauma and Proneness to Shame and Guilt in Adolescence. PloS One, E 11(11), e0167299. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0167299


Huntley, S. S. (2013). Russian Legislation on the Protection of Children Against Sexual Abuse and Sexual Exploitation: A Review. International Centre for Missing and Exploited Children. 167p.

EPCAT International (2008). Regional Overview on Child Sexual Abuse Images through the Use of Information and Communication Technologies in Belarus, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. 95p.

Newlin, C. (2012).  The National Children's Advocacy Center.  International Implementation of child advocacy center model.  Slide presentation.

UNICEF in the Russian Federation - to protect and support children's rights enshrined in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.UNICEF is working in Russia since 1997. Original in Russian language.

Cross, T. P., Jones, L. M., Walsh, W. A., & Simone, M. (2006). Executive Summary: Findings from the UNH Multi-Site Evaluation of Children's Advocacy Centers. Crimes Against Children Research Center, University of New Hampshire. RUSSIAN TRANSLATION

McCarthy, L. A. (2016). Transaction Costs: Prosecuting child trafficking for illegal adoption in Russia. Anti-Trafficking Review, (6), 31-47.

Efficacy of Child Advocacy Centers: A bibliography. (2011). National Children's Advocacy Center. RUSSIAN TRANSLATION.

Russian National Children's Strategy (2012). Full Text Russian language. 3 page English Summary

Smykalo, L., & Suvorova,S. (2013). Continuum of care model for childen victims of abuse: Developing online support services for children. St. Petersburg, Doctors to Children. Slide presentation.

Srivastava, M., & Jayasurya, G. (2011). Sexual offenses against children

Saudi Arabia

Al-Dabaan, R., Newton, J. T., & Asimakopoulou, K. (2014). Knowledge, attitudes, and experience of dentists living in Saudi Arabia toward child abuse and neglect. The Saudi Dental Journal, 26(3), 79-87.

Al-Eissa, M. A., AlBuhairan, F. S., Qayad, M., Saleheen, H., Runyan, D., & Almuneef, M. (2015). Determining child maltreatment incidence in Saudi Arabia using the ICAST-CH: A pilot study. Child abuse & neglect, 42, 174-182.

Almuneef, M., & Al-Eissa, M. (2011). Preventing child abuse and neglect in Saudi Arabia: are we ready?. Annals of Saudi medicine, 31(6), 635-640.

Alnasser, Y., Albijadi, A., Abdullah, W., Aldabeeb, D., Alomair, A., Alsaddiqi, S., & Alsalloum, Y. (2017). Child maltreatment between knowledge, attitude and beliefs among Saudi pediatricians, pediatric residency trainees and medical students. Annals of Medicine and Surgery, 16, 7-13.

Bakarman, M. A., & Eljaaly, Z. O. (2017). Preventing Child Sexual Abuse, What Parents Know?. Annals of King Edward Medical University, 23(3).


Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Cortina-Borja, M., Woodman, J., Mok, J., McGhee, J., Taylor, J., ... & Gilbert, R. (2014). Maltreatment or violence-related injury in children and adolescents admitted to the NHS: Comparison of trends in England and Scotland between 2005 and 2011. BMJ open, 4(4), e004474.

Innes, N. (2013, November). Dental neglect as a marker of broader neglect: A qualitative investigation of public health nurses' assessments of oral health in preschool children. In 141st APHA Annual Meeting (November 2-November 6, 2013). APHA.

LaRooy, D., Lamb, M. E, & Memon, A. (2008). Forensic interviews with children in Scotland: A survey of interview practices among police.

Szojka, Z., Andrews, S. J., Lamb, M. E., Stolzenberg, S. N., & Lyon, T. D. (2016). Challenging the Credibility of Alleged Victims of Child Sexual Abuse in Scottish Courts.

Scottish Parliamentary Corporate Body (2014). Report on tackling child sexual exploitation in Scotland. Scottish Parliament, Public Petitions Committee.


Šahović, N. V. (2016). THE CRC COMMITTEE AND CHILD DIGNITY. Facta Universitatis, Series: Law and Politics, 87-98.


Chu, C. M., Koh, L. L., Zeng, G., & Teoh, J. (2015). Youth Who Sexual Offended Primary Human Goods and Offense Pathways.Sexual abuse: A journal of research and treatment, 27(2), 151-172.

Chng, G. S., Li, D., Chu, C. M., Ong, T., & Lim, F. (2018). Family profiles of maltreated children in Singapore: A latent class analysis. Child abuse & neglect, 79, 465-475.

Gera, S. K., Raveendran, R., & Mahadev, A. (2014). Pattern of fractures in non-accidental injuries in the pediatric population in Singapore. Clinics in orthopedic surgery, 6(4), 432-438

Kang, G., Lim, J. Y., Kale, A. S., & Lee, L. Y. (2015). Adverse effects of young maternal age on neonatal outcomes. Singapore medical journal, 56(3), 157-163.

South Africa

Abrahams, N., Mathews, S., Martin, L. J., Lombard, C., Nannan, N., & Jewkes, R. (2016). Gender differences in homicide of neonates, infants, and children under 5 y in South Africa: Results from the cross-sectional 2009 National Child Homicide Study. PLoS Med, 13(4), e1002003.

Artz, L., Ward, C. L., Leoschut, L., Kassanjee, R., & Burton, P. (2018). The prevalence of child sexual abuse in South Africa: The Optimus Study South Africa. South African Medical Journal, 108(10), 791-792.

Booysen, B. P. R. (2005). A phenomenological study of vicarious trauma experienced by caregivers working with children in a place of safety in the Western Cape. Cape Town, SA: University of the Western Cape, 88 p.

Centre for Applied Legal Studies, University of the Witwatersrand School of Law and Cornell Law School’s Avon Global Center for Women and Justice and International Human Rights Clinic (2014). Sexual Violence by Educators in South African Schools: Gaps in Accountability.

Chabeletsane, S. B. (2015). The perceptions of Setswana parents regarding the disclosure of child sexual abuse. Potchefstroom: NorthWest University.

Coetzee, S. A. (2015). Educator sexual misconduct: Exposing or causing learners to be exposed to child pornography or pornography. PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad, 18(6), 2107-2139

Davidson, J. O. C., & Taylor, J. S. (1996). Child Prostitution and Sex Tourism (Vol. 6).Bangkok: ECPAT International.

Defferary, T. E. M., Howcroft, J. G., & Stroud, L. A. (2018). Redefining Resilience: A Process-centered Approach for Interventions with Child Sexual Abuse SurvivorsUniversal Journal of Psychology, 6(3), 104-112

Greeff, L. (2012). The perceptions of social workers regarding the relationship between sexualized behaviour and self-nurturing amongst children in middle childhood. (MS Thesis) Pretoria, SA: University of Pretoria, (March 2012), 162 pp.

Kidz Clinic Roots and Shoots Preventative Programme (2013). Slide presentation.

Kreston, S. S. (2007). Trafficking in children in South Africa: An analysis of pending legislation.Child Abuse Research in South Africa, 8(1), 35-50.

Lambert, C., & Andipatin, M. (2015). An exploration of student perceptions of the risks and protective factors associated with child sexual abuse and incest in the Western Cape, South Africa.African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention, 12(1), 35-51.

Machisa, M. T., Christofides, N., & Jewkes, R. (2016). Structural Pathways between Child Abuse, Poor Mental Health Outcomes and Male-Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). PLoS one, 11(3), e0150986.

Manfroni, A. (2013). What comes first ? Multiple traumatization of sexual assault survivors in Katorus, South Africa. Ekupholeni Mental Health and Trauma Center, Katlehong. Slide presentation.

Pratiwi, A. A., & Asyary, A. (2017). The impact of child sexual abuse. Journal of Ultimate Public Health, 1(1), 13-17.

Rule, B. M. (2017). Factors that influence the reporting of child sexual abuse amongst primary school teachers in South Africa: An application of the theory of planned behaviour.  (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cape Town.

Warria, A., Nel, H., & Triegaardt, J. (2014). Identification and initial care process of child victims of transnational trafficking: A social work perspective.Social Work, 50(4), 529-549.

South Korea

Chung, U. S. (2015). It Is Time for Doctors to Start Seeing the Signs and Hearing the Cries of Abused Children as Professional Guardians. Journal of Korean medical science, 30(4), 351-352

Jin, Y., Chung, U. S., Jeong, S. H., & Lee, W. K. (2013). The reliability and validity of the Korean version of the child sexual behavior inventory. Psychiatry investigation, 10(4), 336-345.

Park, H. E., & Park, J. H. (2017). The Effects of Child Maltreatment From Parents on Reactive Aggression Among Upper-Elementary-School Students and the Moderating Role of Effortful Control. Korean J Child Stud, 38(5), 5-17.

Rhee, Y. S., Ko, Y. B., & Han, Y. (2013). Posttraumatic growth and related factors of child protective service workers. Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 25(6), 1-10.


Balsells, M.A., Pastor, C., Amorós, P., Mateos, A., Ponce, C., & Navajas, A. (2014). Child Welfare and Successful Reunification through the Socio-Educative Process: Training Needs among Biological Families in Spain.Social Sciences, 3(4), 809-826.

Cristóbal-Narváez, P., Sheinbaum, T., Ballespí, S., Mitjavila, M., Myin-Germeys, I., Kwapil, T. R., & Barrantes-Vidal, N. (2016). Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Psychotic-Like Symptoms and Stress Reactivity in Daily Life in Nonclinical Young Adults. PloS one, 11(4), e0153557

Gracia, E., & Musitu, G. (2003). Social isolation from communities and child maltreatment: A cross-cultural comparison. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27(2), 153-168.


Aho, N., Proczkowska-Björklund, M., & Svedin, C. G. (2016). Victimization, polyvictimization, and health in Swedish adolescents. Adolescent health, medicine and therapeutics, 7, 89-99.

Banck, L. (2013) Multiple Traumas: How do they affect children and what do the children need? Slide presentation

Bergh, C. (2017). Intra-Familial and Extra-Familial Child Sexual Abuse: Differences in Swedish Court Cases. Gothenburg, Sweden: University of Gothenburg.

Blom, H., Högberg, U., Olofsson, N., & Danielsson, I. (2014). Strong association between earlier abuse and revictimization in youth. BMC Public Health,14, 715.

Carelli, M. G., & Forman, H. (2012). Representation of multiple durations in children and adults. Child Development Research, 2011.

Edgardh, K. (2002). Adolescent sexual health in Sweden.Sexually Transmitted Infections. 78(5), 352-356.

Edvardsson, B. (1997). A critical examination of investigative methods in fifteen cases of alleged child sexual abuse in Sweden. The 7th European Conference on Psychology and Law, Swedish Police School, Solna.

Ernberg, E., Magnusson, M., Landström, S., & Tidefors, I. (2018). Court evaluations of young children's testimony in child sexual abuse cases.  Legal and Criminological Psychology.

Ernberg, E., Tidefors, I., & Landström, S. (2016). Prosecutors’ reflections on sexually abused preschoolers and their ability to stand trial. Child abuse & neglect, 57, 21-29.

Hagborg, Johan Melander, Berglund, Kristina, & Fahlke, Claudia. (2018). Evidence for a relationship between child maltreatment and absenteeism among high-school students in Sweden. Child Abuse & Neglect, 75, 41-49.

Inuti Ett Barnahus (2017). A quality review of 23 Swedish Barnahus.

Jonsson, L. (2013). When children victims of sexual abuse don't behave as we expect them to. (2013). Childhood Thematic Seminar. Slide presentation

Kastbom, Å. A., Sydsjö, G., Bladh, M., Priebe, G., & Svedin, C. G. (2015). Sexual debut before the age of 14 leads to poorer psychosocial health and risky behaviour in later life.Acta Paediatrica, 104(1), 91-100.

Kastbom, Å. A., Sydsjö, G., Bladh, M., Priebe, G., & Svedin, C. G. (2016). Differences in sexual behavior, health, and history of child abuse among school students who had and had not engaged in sexual activity by the age of 18 years: A cross-sectional study. Adolescent health, medicine and therapeutics, 7, 1.

Långström, N., Babchishin, K. M., Fazel, S., Lichtenstein, P., & Frisell, T. (2015). Sexual offending runs in families: A 37-year nationwide study. International journal of epidemiology, 44(2), 713-720.

Lucas, S., Jernbro, C., Tindberg, Y., & Janson, S. (2016). Bully, bullied and abused. Associations between violence at home and bullying in childhood. Scandinavian journal of public health, 44(1), 27-35.

Larsson, I. (2001). Child Sexuality and Sexual Behavior; Expert Report 2001-123-20. Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. 42 pp.

Markovich, E. (2017). Two Clicks Away. An analysis analysis of the offence of viewing child sexual abuse materials on the Internet. Lund Sweden: Lund Univeristy.

Münger, A. C., & Markström, A. M. (2017). Recognition and identification of children in preschool and school who are exposed to domestic violence. Education Inquiry, 1-17.

Palm, A., Danielsson, I., Skalkidou, A., Olofsson, N., & Högberg, U. (2016). Violence victimisation—a watershed for young women’s mental and physical health. The European Journal of Public Health, 26(5), 861–867.

Rädda Barnen (2013). Inuti Ett Barnahus-En Kvalitetsgranskning av 23 Svenska Verksamheter.

Swahnberg, I. K., & Wijma, B. (2003). The NorVold Abuse Questionnaire (NorAQ) Validation of new measures of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, and abuse in the health care system among women. The European Journal of Public Health, 13(4), 361-366.

Swahnberg, K., Hearn, J., & Wijma, B. (2009). Prevalence of perceived experiences of emotional, physical, sexual, and health care abuse in a Swedish male patient sample. Violence and Victims, 24(2), 265-279.

Svedin, C. G., & Back, C. (2003). Why Didn't They Tell Us? On Sexual Abuse and Child Pornography. Tallin, EVG Print. 88p

Svedin, C.G., & Landberg, A. (2012). A quality review of Swedish Barnahus-2012. Strengths and Weaknesses Slide presentation.

Hartwig, M. (2005). Interrogating to Detect Deception and Truth: Effects of Strategic Use of Evidence. Gˆteborg University Department of Psychology. 57p

Talsma, M., Bengtsson Boström, K., & Östberg, A. L. (2015). Facing suspected child abuse–what keeps Swedish general practitioners from reporting to child protective services?. Scandinavian journal of primary health care, 33(1), 21-26

Vidal-Ribas, P., Stringaris, A., Rück, C., Serlachius, E., Lichtenstein, P., & Mataix-Cols, D. (2015). Are stressful life events causally related to the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms? A monozygotic twin difference study.European Psychiatry, 30(2), 309-316.

von Borczyskowski, A., Vinnerljung, B., & Hjern, A. (2013). Alcohol and drug abuse among young adults who grew up in substitute care—Findings from a Swedish national cohort study.Children and youth services review, 35(12), 1954-1961.


Brioschi, N., & Knusel, R. (2013). Abuse against children: Harmonization and centralization of data is required in Switzerland.International Journal of Victimology.

Halpérin, D. S., Bouvier, P., Jaffé, P. D., Mounoud, R. L., Pawlak, C. H., Laederach, J., … Astié, F. (1996). Prevalence of child sexual abuse among adolescents in Geneva: Results of a cross sectional surveyBMJ: British Medical Journal, 312(7042), 1326–1329.

Schönbucher, V., Maier, T., Held, L., Mohler-Kuo., Schnyder, U., & Landolf, M. A. (2011). Prevalence of child sexual abuse in Switzerland: A systematic review.Swiss Medical Weekly, 140:w13123.


Abeid, M., Muganyizi, P., Massawe, S., Mpembeni, R., Darj, E., & Axemo, P. (2015). Knowledge and attitude towards rape and child sexual abuse–a community-based cross-sectional study in Rural Tanzania.BMC Public Health, 15(1), 428.

McCrann, D. (2017). An Exploratory Study of Child Sexual Abuse in Tanzania. Dublin Institute of Technology.

Mlekwa, F. M., Nyamhanga, T., Chalya, P. L., & Urassa, D. (2016). Knowledge, attitudes and practices of parents on child sexual abuse and its prevention in Shinyanga district, Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Health Research, 18(4).


Hu, M. H., Huang, G. S., Huang, J. L., Wu, C. T., Chao, A. S., Lo, F. S., & Wu, H. P. (2018). Clinical characteristic and risk factors of recurrent sexual abuse and delayed reported sexual abuse in childhood. Medicine, 97(14), e0236


AÇAR, K. V. (2016). Sexual Extortion of Children in Cyberspace. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 10(2).

AÇAR, K. V. (2017). Webcam Child Prostitution: An Exploration of Current and Futuristic Methods of Detection. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 11(1).

Çelik, İ. (2018). Can the Reason for Sexual Abuse of Children Be Inadequacy in Sexual Education?. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 6(4), 798-802.

İbiloğlu, A. O., Atlı, A., Oto, R., & Özkan, M. (2018). Çocukluk Çağı Cinsel İstismar ve Ensest Olgularına Çok Yönlü Bakış. Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar-Current Approaches in Psychiatry, 10(1), 84-98

Kar, Hakan. (2011). Sexual assault in childhood and adolescence. In Duarte Nuno Vieira (Ed.), Forensic Medicine - From old problems to new challenges. InTech. Written by a Faculty member of the Department of Forensic Medicine at Mersin University. 26 pages, with medical illustrations.

Karanfil, R., Akcan, R., & Orhan, F. O. (2011). Allegations of child sexual abuse and paranoid disorder: A report of 2 cases. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, 22(1), 1-4.

Özlem Bağ, & Sevay Alşen (2016). Çocuğun cinsel istismarının değerlendirilmesinde yeni model: Çocuk İzlem Merkezleri. Dr. Behçet Uz Çocuk Hastalıkları ve Cerrahisi, 6(1),9-14.

Pavlović, Z., & Bijvoets, J. (2016). Situational prevention of child sexual abuse. Nauka, bezbednost, policija, 21(1), 114-132

Sener, M. T., Anci, Y., & Dursun, O. B. (2013). Significance of Healthy Family Structure in Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: A Prospective Controlled Study. Medicine Science |International Medical Journal Online first: 26 Jul, 2013. doi:10.5455/medscience.2013.02.8103

Şimşek, Ş., Yüksel, T., Kaplan, İ., Uysal, C., & Aktaş, H. (2016). The Levels of Cortisol and Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Child and Adolescent Victims of Sexual Abuse with or without Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Psychiatry Investigation, 13(6), 616–621.

Unlu, G., & Cakaloz, B. (2016). Effects of perpetrator identity on suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury in sexually victimized female adolescents. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 12, 1489.


Devries, K. M., Child, J. C., Elbourne, D., Naker, D., & Heise, L. (2015). “I never expected that it would happen, coming to ask me such questions”: Ethical aspects of asking children about violence in resource poor settings. Trials, 16(1), 1

Devries, K. M., Knight, L., Child, J. C., Kyegombe, N., Hossain, M., Lees, S., ... & Naker, D. (2017). Witnessing intimate partner violence and child maltreatment in Ugandan children: A cross-sectional survey. BMJ open, 7(2), e013583.


Risley, A. (2014). Protecting Children and Adolescents in Uruguay:Civil Society’s Role in Policy Reform. Social Sciences, 3(4),705-725.

United Kingdom

Anderson, Emma L. ,Fraser, Abigail , Caleyachetty, Ris, ; Hardy, Rebecca ,Lawlor, Debbie A. , & Howe, Laura D. (2018). Associations of adversity in childhood and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in mid-adulthood. Child Abuse & Neglect, 76, 138-148

Archer, G., Pereira, S. P., & Power, C. (2017). Child maltreatment as a predictor of adult physical functioning in a prospective British birth cohort. BMJ Open, 7(10), e017900.

Armour, C., Műllerová, J., Fletcher, S., Lagdon, S., Burns, C. R., Robinson, M., & Robinson, J. (2016). Assessing childhood maltreatment and mental health correlates of disordered eating profiles in a nationally representative sample of English females. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 51(3), 383-393.

Barlow, J., Sembi, S., Gardner, F., Macdonald, G., Petrou, S., Parsons, H., ... & Dawe, S. (2013). An evaluation of the parents under pressure programme: A study protocol for an RCT into its clinical and cost effectiveness. Trials, 14(1), 210.

Barnes, J., Aistrop, D., Allen, E., Barlow, J., Elbourne, D., Macdonald, G., ... & Spiby, H. (2013). First steps: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of the Group Family Nurse Partnership (gFNP) program compared to routine care in improving outcomes for high-risk mothers and their children and preventing abuse. Trials, 14(1), 285-296.

Bellis, M. A., Hughes, K., Leckenby, N., Hardcastle, K. A., Perkins, C., & Lowey, H. (2014). Measuring mortality and the burden of adult disease associated with adverse childhood experiences in England: A national survey. Journal of public health, 37(3), 445-454.

Bentley, H. et al. (2017). How safe are our children? The most comprehensive overview of child protection in the UK. National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children.

Berelowitz, S., Firmin, C., Edwards, G., & Gulyurtlu, S. (2012). Inquiry into Child Sexual Exploitation in Gangs and Groups. Interim Report.Office of the Children's Commissioner. 137p.

Berelowitz, S., Ritchie, G., & Edwards, G. (2014). “If it’s not better, it’s not the end”: Inquiry into Child Sexual Exploitation in Gangs and Groups: one year on. United Kingdom: Office of the Children's Commissioner.

Bifulco, A., Brown, G. W., Lillie, A., & Jarvis, J. (1997). Memories of childhood neglect and abuse: Corroboration in a series of sisters.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38(3), 365-374.

Brackenridge, C. H., & Rhind, D. (2014). Child Protection in Sport: Reflections on Thirty Years of Science and Activism.Social Sciences, 3(3), 326-340.

Brayley, H., & Cockbain, E. (2014). British children can be trafficked too: Towards an inclusive definition of internal child sex trafficking.Child abuse review, 23(3), 171-184.

Bywaters, P., Bunting, L., Davidson, G., Hanratty, J., Mason, W., McCartan, C., & Steils, N. (2016). The relationship between poverty, child abuse and neglect: An evidence review. York, England: Joseph Roundtree Association.

Cameron, G., Sayer, E. M., Thomson, L., Wilson, S., Jones, D. N., & Florek, A. (2015). Child Sexual Exploitation: A study of international comparisons. United Kingdom: Office for Public Management.

Cheshire, E. C., Malcomson, R. D., Joseph, S., Adnan, A., Adlam, D., & Rutty, G. N. (2017). Post-mortem imaging of the infant and perinatal dura mater and superior sagittal sinus using optical coherence tomography. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 1-7.

Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre (2013). Threat Assessment of Child Sexual Exploitation and Abuse. 24 p.

Crane, C., Heron, J., Gunnell, D., Lewis, G., Evans, J., & Williams, J. M. G. (2014). Childhood traumatic events and adolescent overgeneral autobiographical memory: Findings in a UK cohort.Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry, 45(3), 330-338.

Criminal Justice System. Achieving Best Evidence in Criminal Proceedings: Guidance on Interviewing Victims and Witnesses, and Using Special Measures. (2007).

Davies, F. C., Coats, T. J., Fisher, R., Lawrence, T., & Lecky, F. E. (2015). A profile of suspected child abuse as a subgroup of major trauma patients. Emergency medicine journal, 32(12), 921-925.

De San Lazaro, C. (1995). Making paediatric assessment in suspected sexual abuse a therapeutic experience. Archives of disease in childhood, 73(2), 174-176.

Domoney, J., Howard, L. M., Abas, M., Broadbent, M., & Oram, S. (2015). Mental health service responses to human trafficking: A qualitative study of professionals’ experiences of providing care. BMC Psychiatry, 15, 289

Dorahy, M. J., Corry, M., Shannon, M., MacSherry, A., Hamilton, G., McRobert, G., ... & Hanna, D. (2009). Complex PTSD, interpersonal trauma and relational consequences: Findings from a treatment-receiving Northern Irish sample. Journal of affective disorders, 112(1), 71-80.

Barnardo's. (2010). From Playground to Prison: The case for reviewing the age of criminal responsibility. 12 p.

Allnock, D. (2010). Children and young people disclosing abuse: An introduction to the research. London: National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children.

Fox, F., Stallard, P., & Cooney, G. (2015). GPs role identifying young people who self-harm: A mixed methods study. Family practice, cmv031.

Farmer, E., & Pollock, S. (1998). Substitute care for sexually abused and abusing children. [Executive Summary] Chichester, UK: Wiley.

Gooding, H. C., Milliren, C., McLaughlin, K. A., Richmond, T. K., Katz-Wise, S. L., Rich-Edwards, J., & Austin, S. B. (2014). Child maltreatment and blood pressure in young adulthood. Child abuse & neglect, 38(11), 1747-1754.

Gonzalez‐Izquierdo, A., Ward, A., Smith, P., Walford, C., Begent, J., Ioannou, Y., & Gilbert, R. (2015). Notifications for child safeguarding from an acute hospital in response to presentations to healthcare by parents. Child: care, health and development, 41(2), 186-193.

Guy, J., Feinstein, L., & Griffiths, A. (2014). Early intervention in domestic violence and abuse. London: Early Intervention Foundation.

Hackett, S., Phillips, J., Masson, H., & Balfe, M. (2013). Individual, family and abuse characteristics of 700 British child and adolescent sexual abusers.Child Abuse Review, 22(4), 232-245. 

Hackett, S. and Smith, S. (2018). 'Young people who engage in child sexual exploitation behaviours : An exploratory study.', Project Report. Centre for Expertise on Child Sexual Abuse, Ilford, Essex.

Hartill, M., & Lang, M. (2014). “I Know People Think I’m a Complete Pain in the Neck”: An Examination of the Introduction of Child Protection and “Safeguarding” in English Sport from the Perspective of National Governing Body Safeguarding Lead Officers. Social Sciences, 3(4), 606-627.

HM Government (2015). Statutory guidance on inter-agency working to safeguard and promote the welfare of children. United Kingdom: Author.

Hobbs, C., & Wynne, J. (1996). Use of the colposcope in examination for sexual abuse. Archives of disease in childhood, 75(6), 539-542.

Hobbs, C. J., Wynne, J. M., & Thomas, A. J. (1995). Colposcopic genital findings in prepubertal girls assessed for sexual abuse. Archives of disease in childhood, 73(5), 465-471

Hughes, C., & Thomas, M. (2016). " You can trust me…" Young people going missing and at risk of, or abused through, child sexual exploitation in North Wales. Barnardo's Cymru.

Jackson, Sharon ; Backett-Milburn, Kathryn ; Newall, Elinor. (2013). Researching Distressing Topics: Emotional Reflexivity and Emotional Labor in the Secondary Analysis of Children and Young People’s Narratives of Abuse. Sage Open, 3(2),

Kelly, L., & Karsna, K. (2017). Measuring the scale and changing nature of child sexual abuse and child sexual exploitation: scoping report. London Metropolitan University.

Khan, Roxanne ; Cooke, David J. (2012). Measurement of Sibling Violence: A Two-Factor Model of Severity. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 40(1), 26-39.

Khan, R., & Rogers, P. (2015). The normalization of sibling violence: Does gender and personal experience of violence influence perceptions of physical assault against siblings?. Journal of interpersonal violence, 30(3), 437-458.

Khan, Roxanne ; Cooke, David J. (2008). Risk Factors for Severe Inter-Sibling Violence: A Preliminary Study of a Youth Forensic Sample. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23(11), 1513-1530.

Kilkelly, U. (2013). Lessons learned from the past: Legal issues arising from Ireland's child abuse reports. Irish Journal of Applied Social Studies, 12(1).

Lamers‐Winkelman, F., Schipper, J., & Oosterman, M. (2012). Children's physical health complaints after exposure to intimate partner violence. British journal of health psychology, 17(4), 771-784.

Lambert, S., & Hammond, S. (2009). Perspectives on female sexual offending in an Irish context. Irish Journal of Social Studies, 9(1).

Lalor, K. (1998). Child sexual abuse in Ireland: An historical and anthropological note. Irish Journal of Applied Social Studies, 1(1).

Lourenço, C. B., Saintrain, M. V., & Vieira, A. P. (2013). Child, neglect and oral health. BMC pediatrics, 13(1), 188.

Martellozzo, E. (2011). Research highlights for children's online safety. Policing online child sexual abuse. UK Council for Child Internet Safety and Middlesex University.

Martellozzo, E. (2015). Policing online child sexual abuse-the British experience. European Journal of policing Studies, 3(1), 32-52.

Mountjoy, M., Rhind, D. J. A., Tiivas, A., & Leglise, M. (2015). Safeguarding the child athlete in sport: a review, a framework and recommendations for the IOC youth athlete development model.British journal of sports medicine, 49(13), 883-886.

O'Connell Davidson, J. (2011). Moving children? Child trafficking, child migration, and child rights. Critical social policy, 31(3), 454-477.

Oliver, J. E. (1983). Dead children from problem families in NE Wiltshire. British medical journal (Clinical research ed.), 286(6359), 115-117.

Ottisova, L., Smith, P., Shetty, H., Stahl, D., Downs, J., & Oram, S. (2018). Psychological consequences of child trafficking: An historical cohort study of trafficked children in contact with secondary mental health services.  PLoS one, 13(3), e0192321.

Nguyen, T. B., Gunn, J. M., Potiriadis, M., Everall, I. P., & Bousman, C. A. (2015). Serotonin transporter polymorphism (5HTTLPR), severe childhood abuse and depressive symptom trajectories in adulthood.British Journal of Psychiatry Open, 1(1), 104-110.

Plant, D. T., Pariante, C. M., Sharp, D., & Pawlby, S. (2015). Maternal depression during pregnancy and offspring depression in adulthood: role of child maltreatment. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 207(3), 213-220.

Power, C., Pereira, S. M. P., & Li, L. (2015). Childhood maltreatment and BMI trajectories to mid-adult life: Follow-up to age 50y in a British birth cohort. PloS one, 10(3), e0119985.

Prosser, I. M., & Harrison, S. K. (2017). Interpreting fractures in child maltreatment. Paediatrics and Child Health, 27(1), 28-32.

Roach, J., & Bryant, R. (2015). Child homicide: Generating victim and suspect risk profiles. Journal of Criminal Psychology, 5(3), 201-215.

Russo, D. A., Stochl, J., Painter, M., Dobler, V., Jackson, E., Jones, P. B., & Perez, J. (2014). Trauma history characteristics associated with mental states at clinical high risk for psychosis. Psychiatry research, 220(1), 237-244

Saperia, J., Lakhanpaul, M., Kemp, A., & Glaser, D. (2009). When to suspect child maltreatment: Summary of NICE guidance. BMJ, 339.

Scourfield, J., Cheung, S. Y., & Macdonald, G. (2014). Working with fathers to improve children's well-being: Results of a survey exploring service provision and intervention approach in the UK. Children and Youth Services Review, 43, 40-50.

Stanley, N., Oram, S., Jakobowitz, S., Westwood, J., Borschmann, R., Zimmerman, C., & Howard, L. M. (2016). The health needs and healthcare experiences of young people trafficked into the UK. Child Abuse & Neglect, 59, 100–110.

Stansfeld, S. A., Clark, C., Smuk, M., Power, C., Davidson, T., & Rodgers, B. (2016). Childhood adversity and midlife suicidal ideation. Psychological Medicine,  47(2), 327-340

Tofaris, Stelios. (2018). The Negligence Liability of Local Authorities for Failure to Protect Children from Abuse: Where to Draw the Line? University of Cambridge Faculty of Law Research Paper No. 44. 13 p.

Turner, W., Broad, J., Drinkwater, J., Firth, A., Hester, M., Stanley, N., ... & Feder, G. (2015). Interventions to Improve the Response of Professionals to Children Exposed to Domestic Violence and Abuse: A Systematic Review. Child Abuse Review.

UK Council for Child Internet Safety. (2012). Advice on child internet safety 1.0 Universal guidelines for providers.More than 40 organizations joined together to create this resource for parents and caregivers.

Vlahovicova, K., Melendez-Torres, G. J., Leijten, P., Knerr, W., & Gardner, F. (2017). Parenting programs for the prevention of child physical abuse recurrence: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical child and family psychology review, 1-15.

Warrington, S. A., & de San Lazaro, C. (1996). Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and sexual abuse. Archives of disease in childhood, 75(6), 512-516

Whittle, H. C., Hamilton-Giachritsis, C. E., & Beech, A. R. (2014). “Under His Spell”: Victims’ Perspectives of Being Groomed Online.Social Sciences, 3(3), 404-426.

Williams, M. (2018). Working with a community to prevent child sexual abuse in the home. London: National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children.

Wilson, P., & Mullin, A. (2010). Child neglect: what does it have to do with general practice?. British Journal of General Practice, 60(570), 5-7.

Wood, P. L., & Bevan, T. (1999). Lesson of the week child sexual abuse enquiries and unrecognised vulval lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 319(7214), 899-900.

Woodman, J., Allister, J., Rafi, I., de Lusignan, S., Belsey, J., Petersen, I., & Gilbert, R. (2012). A simple approach to improve recording of concerns about childmaltreatment in primary care records: Developing a quality improvement intervention. British Journal of General Practice, 62(600), e478-e486.

Woodman, J., Freemantle, N., Allister, J., de Lusignan, S., Gilbert, R., & Petersen, I. (2012). Variation in recorded child maltreatment concerns in UK primary care records: A cohort study using The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database.PloS one, 7(11), e49808.

VBellis, Mark ; Hughes, Karen ; Hardcastle, Katie ; Ashton, Kathryn ; Ford, Kat ; Quigg, Zara ; Davies, Alisha. (2017). The impact of adverse childhood experiences on health service use across the life course using a retrospective cohort study. Journal of Health Services Research & Policy, 22(3), 168-177.

Yusuf, I. H.,Barnes, J. K.,Fung, T. H. M.,  Elston, J. S., & Patel, C. K. (2017).  Non-contact ultra widefield retinal imaging of infants with suspected abusive head trauma. Eye, 1, 111.

Viet Nam

Le, M. T. H., Holton, S., Nguyen, H. T., Wolfe, R., & Fisher, J. (2016). Victimisation, poly-victimisation and health-related quality of life among high school students in Vietnam: A cross-sectional survey. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 14, 155.

Nguyen, H. T., Dunne, M. P., & Le, A. V. (2009). Multiple types of child maltreatment and adolescent mental health in Viet Nam. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 87, 22-30.

Tran, N. K., Van Berkel, S. R., van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Alink, L. R. A. (2017). The association between child maltreatment and emotional, cognitive, and physical health functioning in Vietnam. BMC Public Health, 17, 332.


Avon Global Center for Women and Justice and Dorothea S. Clarke Program in Feminist Jurisprudence (2012). "They Are Destroying Our Futures": Sexual Violence Against Girls in Zambia's Schools.

Avon Global Center for Women and Justice and Dorothea S. Clarke Program in Feminist Jurisprudence (2014). Handbook on Juvenile Law in Zambia.

Chitundu, K., Mwape, L., & Kwaleyela, C. (2018). Perception of the Community towards Child Sexual Abuse: A Case of Chawama Lusaka, Zambia. Open Journal of Psychiatry, 8(03), 328

Mbuzi, A. B. (2012). Legal societal system intervention trauma to child sexual abuse victims following disclosure in Lusaka Urban District, Zambia. Dissertation. Univeristy of Zambia.

Review Article. Integration of Services for Victims of Child Sexual Abuse at the University Teaching Hospital One-Stop Centre.Journal of Tropical Medicine.


Feltoe, G. (2017). Strengthening our law on child sexual abuse. The Zimbabwe Electronic Law Journal. Online.

Gwirayi, P. (2013). Fighting child sexual abuse: Perspectives of pupils from a developing country. Sage open, 3(1), 2158244012472687

Mapanda, J. (2015). A study on child sexual abuse mitigation strategies in Zimbabwean rural communities: A case of Muringazuva ward 8, Muzarabani district. Bindura University of Science Education. (Doctoral dissertation).

Muridzo, N. G., & Malianga, E. (2015). Child sexual abuse in Zimbabwe: Prevention strategies for social workers. African Journal of Social Work, 5(2), 41-64.